Capitalism employs Religion Ideology both as soft-ware and hard- ware              weapons

None of the leaders of capitalist classes as openly and frankly exposed the true nature of religion ideology at the service of capitalism, as much as Napoleon, as he pronounced:

society is impossible without inequality, Inequality is intolerable without a code of morality, and a code of morality unacceptable without religion. Then , Marx aptly countering Napoleon's expression, he declared: religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, heart of the heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is opium of the people. End of quotations.

There are American Neo-cons who are lamenting that, why founding fathers of America had incorporated the article of separation of religion from state(1)? The answer is that, the intellectuals of enlightenment/rationality age, Voltaire, Diderot, etc- as the intellectual representatives of rising Bourgeoisie/ capitalist class-, to whom founding fathers of America associated with, had based their perception on reason or rational thinking(2). They radically criticised, refuted and cast aside Religion Ideology/ dogma. As regards the separation of religion from state, it means that, religion has to be considered as a personal and private matter and should be kept out of the whole public domain. As to the Western capitalist countries, they have in general not incorporated separation of religion from state on to constitutions(3). However, they hypocritically proud themselves of holding secular countries. And at the same time, and at varying degrees(4), these countries advancing Religion Ideology at schools curriculum, allowing schools being administered by church, giving media coverage to religion- at TV, Movie, publishing industry-, officially conducting religious ceremonies; financially supporting(5) religion institutions and etc,. The attitude of many of other countries toward intrusion of religion on the public life is much worse than western countries. It would suffice to make reference to Saudi Arabia and Iran, both having states based on Islamic Ideology(6) . The first implementing full weight of Sharia Law-Quran and Hadiths- through Wahabi sect, and Iran too performing Sharia law-Quran and Hadiths- pursuant to Shia Sect.

At the wake of WW2, allied powers, have now split into two hostile camps of East and West/So-called communist states and free world(7) and, as the result, the age of cold war was set off. The latter gave way to opening up a fresh period of employing Religion Ideology at the field of class struggles. Thus, president Truman of America employed god-fearing hype of west against godless Ex-Soviet Union, as an extra fodder for propaganda machine.

Ideology of religion as a soft-ware weapon at the service of Capitalism

To begin with, we have to remember the above two quotations, in respect of the ideology of religion. The first saw Religion Ideology as a stratagem for masking the existence of class division, class antagonism, the reality of capitalist society of exploiter and exploited and sanctifying inequality. The second quotation cogently expresses that similar to the momentary relief of opium on consumer, fugitive to the opium of religion too finds fleeting solace from capitalism`s suffering.

Thus, Christianity, Islam, etc, as a part of capitalism ideology are justifying the inhumane Capitalism`s wage-slavery system, and preaching working class masses submitting to their conditions of living and working. We see that no sooner than capitalist crisis breaks out, church dispatches its agents to working class communities, they go from one door to next and telling unemployed that Jesus Christ- son of god!- and his bible are here to save you. Of course, the hierarchy of church do not throw their support free of charge behind capitalism , and subsisting on the alms from their folk and also it dropping from the heaven, instead. Rather, capitalism well appreciate the service of Religion Ideology and handsomely rewarding them(8).

However, in those capitalist countries, where the Ideology of Islam constitutes the very state ideology, the entire society is being under the siege of religion Ideology and the canon of Providence controls the lives of human beings and the things that happen to them. Therefore, there is no social classes, everybody is equal slave before the god, (9); democracy, i.e. the running of whole affairs of society by women and men, and the principles of right to strike, right to expression, organising and gender equality(10), etc, are banned

and considered as ideas of infidels and godlessness. What a fabulous tool is the Ideology of Islam at the service of capitalist class to exploiting working classes.

Ideology of Religion as hard-ware weapon at the service of capitalism

In the aftermath of WW2, and the outbreak of cold war, US imperialism at the head of her allies, listed, in addition to, Ex-soviet Union, the Nationalist and Progressive movements, as her enemies. Because, those colonies which were struggling for independence from colonial powers(11) and others who had already gained their independence or were semi-independent; and were seeking independent policies, they met the wrath of US Imperialism and co. US Imperialism regarded their independent policies as tantamount to communism and ergo an act of hostility. In other words, you are either with us or against us. For instance, on 1953, Iranian Nationalist government of liberal Dr Mohammad Mosadegh was overthrown by a joint coup d'état of US and UK imperialists. Fidel Castro was originally a Nationalist leader of Cuba, and only when US Imperialism refused to recognise his independent stand, then Fidel Castro turned left toward Ex-Soviet Union- now infidel. The same was true of late Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt, again infidel.

It was on the backdrop of such imperialist & co war-mongering that, particularly Ideology of Islam was employed as an additional hard-ware weapon in the class struggle. And, the medieval, super-reactionary state of Saudi Arabia based on Sharia Law-Quran and Hadiths- represented by Wahabi sect, rose as the pillar of the above heinous project . Parallel to exporting of millions of barrels of oil a day, Saudi Arabia also export innumerable volumes of grisly Wahabi literature and many thousands of Wahabi Imams- preachers-; further, Saudi Arabia has built thousands mosques and still keeps building more mosques across the world. At these mosques Sharia law-Quran and Hadiths- have been taught ,and particularly, Youth are brainwashed.

Thus, Since aftermath the WW2, Saudi Arabia in cohort with Imperialist powers has continued using weapon of Sharia law , on the one hand, oppressing internal dissent, and fighting against progressive and left currents at Arab world and beyond, on the other. Afghanistan was a rather secular country and  making a slow rate of , but, steady progress. When Ex-Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, it furnished an exceptional inhumane opportunity to US Imperialism to plunge Afghanistan into the Vietnam of Ex-Soviet Union. Military training, weapons and associated facilities supplied by US, weapon of Sharia Law-Quran and Hadiths- of Vahabi sect and money from Saudi Arabia; further Wahabi fighters were recruited from local, Saudi Arabia ,etc. As the result, Al-Qaida, twin creature of US and Saudi Arabia was born. The Ex-Soviet Union Imperialism was defeated ,on 1988, and left Afghanistan. Now for US Imperialism & co mission was accomplished! They callously left a ruined and chaotic Afghanistan to a bunch of Criminal war lords from Pashto, Tajik, Uzbek, etc, ethnicities, who set off savagely tearing off each other and inflicted more devastation and rolling Afghanistan back to dark ages. How, charitable were Imperialists & co. A while later, Pakistani(12,13) brainwashed Wahabi Taliban at Pakistani Madrasas, seminary schools, that paid for by Saudi Arabia, and blessed by Imperialists, crossed the border and set up, on 1996, a brutal Wahabi state in Kabul. In brief, Taleban Emirate hanged cassettes from posts, females were completely shut out of public domain, etc. Though, Imperialist & co created a hell of Afghanistan, they delivered Al Qaida Frankishtine yet.

American New cons redrawing the map of Middle East

About the juncture to Junior George Bush becomes the president of USA, on 2000, a revised map of Middle East, was called ˋNew middle Eastˊ made public for a fleeting time. It revealed that, US, as a single super power imperialist, was supposedly entitled to redraw for her interests the map of Oil reach and geopolitically important region of Middle East. And, the dubious attacks, by al-Qaida of Ben Laden, on twin towers and the building of Pentagon furnished an excuse for whipping up bizarre and fanatical patriotic and chauvinistic propaganda. Then, on 2001, US invaded Afghanistan and swiftly removed Taliban from power. Two years later, on 2003, accusing Sadam Hussein for holding so-called mass destruction weapons and also his alleged connection with Osama Bin Laden, in alliance with UK, as her junior ally, US invaded Iraq and within the duration of a month the regime was buckled. Now, the land of Iraq became a fertile soil for mush-rooming of Vahabism. Now, Iran squeezed between the two of US conquered countries on its east and west borders, was perilously looked as the next target. However, the ferocious resistance of Iraqi nationalist movement and Al-Qaida`s involvement bugged US & UK imperialists in Iraq. Further, exploiting US negligence in Afghanistan, Taliban crept out of their hiding and were regrouped and forced US & allied once more coming back to Afghanistan- Vahabism swarmed again . Still, further, with the rise of Arab spring, to make up for Afghanistan and Iraq debacles, Imperialist powers of US, UK, France and their allies Saudi Arabia and Qatar collaborated to topple Moamar Kaddafi of Libya. However, to their detriment Libya involvement did not fare better- Vahabism burgeoned here too. No sooner than, Libya fiasco was unfolded , again Imperialist powers & co, this time, hell bent to Mutilate Syria, and made of it something ghostly resembling to Japanese devastated cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki(14). They trained, armed,financed, opened Turkey`s border to Syria, etc. and created monster ISIS and alike- and Vahabism flourished both in Syria and Iraq. Similar to Al-Qaida, Isis is not a stupid stooge of Imperialist powers & co, rather, they have now developed their own dynamism.

Syria government`s enemies are pursuing diverse objectives. Semi-dictatorR.T . Erdogan, president of Turkey, wants to carve up a part of Syria and more importantly annihilate Rojava, self-management democracy o Syrian Kurds and self-management movement of Kurds of Turkey. Israel, Saudi Arabia and Qatar have been aiming at removing Assad from power, and thereby slashing Iran`s influence in Syria, Lebanon and weakening her position in Iraq, on the one; and at least downsizing Russian Imperialism dominance in Syria, on the orher.

The surfacing of ISIS and capturing Mosul on 31 May 2015, gave rise to  opportunity to US military once more coming back to Iraq, expanding her military basis in Iraq and particularly, exipanding bases in the Iraqi Kurdistan of client  regime of Masod Barzani. Whilst, in line with her allies, US pursued violent overthrowing of Syria regime, it was intriguing to see that upon emerging   of savage ISIS, Obama said, the latter`s issue requires to be resolved through political channel. And, at another occasion telling it needed to contain ISIS! However, contrary to US vacilliating policies towards Syria, the Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Qatar displayed cosistent policy. 

 

Summing up:

Since the aftermath of WW2, and particularly from 1960s, US imperialism and her allies employed religion Ideology, both as soft-ware and hard-ware weapons at the service of class struggle and waging aggressive wars. Imperialist powers reprehensibly created,   assisted and supported states based on oppressive Religion Ideologies.

1- As a soft-ware weapon, and resembling to opium, ideology of religion masks class society, the very division of society into classes of exploiter and exploited; at varying degrees it denies civil society, democracy and democratic rights, and, as the result, it preaches to make condition of suffering under Capitalist system of exploitation bearable to masses of workers.

2- As a hard-ware, we see that, how Ideology of Vahabism- Sharia Law- is being used as a sickening weapon for aggression, conquest, regime change. It hysterically hostile to democratic values: gender equality, right to strike, organise, right to expression of opinion, in spoken and written, etc. The weapon of Wahabism created oppressive and insecure environments- totally anti- civil society- and sweeping off the social stage- wherever put its dreadful hands- the class struggle, democratic values, and the demands and ideals of working classes. How remarkable Sharia Law, based on Quran and Hadiths, of Wahabism is serving wage-slavery system of capitalism. In the mean time, we have to point out that, Sharia Law of Shia  sect based on -Quran and Hadith- is not less culprit than its twin brother, Wahabism. Since its coming to power the Shia Sharia law-Quran and Hadith- in Iran, it bas ceaselessly been challenged by secular opposition; and it has survived by employing the same brute force as was used its founder- Shah Ismail.

2-1 Using weapon of Wahabism, imperialism wreaked havoc to huge swathes of infrastructure, destroying colossal quantities of constant capital, particularly in middle east, and generating fantastic opportunity for reconstruction industry of world capitalism.

2-2, The current Imperialist wars that spurred by Sharia Law- Quran and Hadith- conditioned fabulous chance for military industrial complexes, selling weapons and making profits, (e.g. they awash Saudi Arabia with weapons, who ruthlessly killing Yemani people and humanist imperialist powers and co are watching it with self-satisfaction) at the cost of apocalyptic destruction, killing hundreds of thousands , further maiming, injuring many more adult and children; forcing some ten millions to fleeing their place of abodes and seeking refuge at unwelcoming and not less racist capitalist west, who are the   principle culprit of the whole current nasty scenarios.

Notes

I- Since Ronald Reagan stepped into the white House on 1981, Christian religion, particularly evangelical church,   was so madly evangelised on TV shows, that, there are now nearly 50% of Americans who believe according to the old testament, Torah, god created world in 6 days, and took rest on the seventh day . One Christian evangelist judge placed a plinth- engraved on it, the ten commandments of Muses- in front of the high court!

2- It is interesting to note that rational thinking, based on reason, was developed on ninth century at the empire built on Islamic Ideology.

3- Britain is the only country, which does not have constitution, so her hands are free, and whilst, practically pretending being a secular country, the state widely promoting religion ideology and several thousand schools are administered by the church of England.  

4- There are Christian Democratic and Christian social Democratic Parties in Germany and Christian Democratic Party in Italy, etc. These parties incorporated Religion Ideology into party constitution, needless to say, they are right wing parties.

5- For instance, church Commissioners is a body managing properties and assets of the Church of England.

6- Ideology of Islam

Islam expressly forbids a clergy. All believers are same before Allah. No, hierarchy is permitted in the mosque, and, technically, any Muslim can be invited to address the faithful after Friday prayers. How Islam would have developed if it had been compelled to spend the first hundred years in the wilderness is an interesting abstraction, but it never faced with this choice. Instead its leaders rapidly found themselves at the head of large empires, with the result that a great deal of improvisation had to take place. The authorised version of the Quran was published many years after the death of Muhammad, its accuracy guaranteed by the third caliph Uthman, and it was accepted as the authentic version, though modern ̔ infidel   ̓   scholars such as Patricia Crone have found ̔no hard evidence for the existence of the Quran in any form before the last decade of the seventh century(Muhammad died at 632)... ̓

Regardless of the date, Quranic prescriptions, while quite detailed on certain subjects , did not suffice to provide a complete code of social and political conduct needed to assert Islamic hegemony in the conquered lands. And so hadith ( tradition) came into existence, consisting of what the Prophet or his Companions or his wife( favourite Aisha, from me) had said at a particular time and date to K or Y, who had then passed it on to Q or Z, who had informed author, who in turn wrote down the   ̔ Hadith or tradition   ̓. Christianity had undergone a similar experience, but restricted it to four gospels, making sure that the contradictory versions of performed miracles or other episodes were either edited out or reduced to a bare minimum.

The need to create traditions/ hadiths resulted in the birth of a new craft , which provided employment to hundreds of scholars and scribes throughout the seventh and eighth centuries, even though most of them were intellectually ill-equipped for the purpose. It led to ferocious arguments regarding the authenticity of particular traditions-hadiths. The war of traditions still goes on, raising the basic question whether any of them are authentic. Specialists have been debating this for over a thousand years, but no consensus is ever reached , nor is one possible, though over the centuries Islamic scholars have reduced the number of acceptable traditions and named the most reliable authors.

The point, however, is not their authenticity but the ideological role they played in Islamic societies. Sunni traditions/ hadiths challenge the  Shia ̔heresy ̓. The Shia developed their own traditions/ hadiths, some of which are extremely offensive regarding Aisha and Umayyads. The aim was to discredit Aisha, etc. The Ali`s followers alleged that the weak-knead Caliph Uthman, who organised the first authorised version of the Quran, removed whole verses from it because they favoured his factional rivals, the supporters of Ali. One of the traditions attributed to Aisha claims that in its oral phase the Quran, in a moving homage to the Old Testament- Torah- recommended ̔ stoning till to death ̓ as the price for adultery, whereas Uthman`s published version suggests that a good flogging is punishment enough.

It would have been surprising, if this highly-charged atmosphere of actual and intellectual civil wars- Hadith, Tradition, versus counter- Hadith, Tradition, differing schools of interpretation, disputes on the authenticity of the Quran itself- had failed yield a fine harvest of sceptics and heretics. These emerged in due course. Many poets, philosophers and heretics expanded the frontiers of debate and dissent in the search for knowledge and thus enriched Islamic civilisations.

The Andalusian (*)philosophers usually debated within the confines of Islam, though the twelfth-century Cordoban Ibn Rushd- Latin known as Averroes (1126-98) occasionally crossed the permitted frontiers. When, the enlightened Sultan Abu Yusuf questioned him about the nature of the sky , the astronomer-philosopher did not initially offer a reply, he did not trust him. The Sultan persisted: Is it a substance which has existed from all eternity or did it have a beginning? Only when the ruler indicated his awareness of the works of ancient philosophers, did Ibn Rushd trust him and responded by explaining why rationalist methods were superior to religious dogma. His magnum opus work Commentaries attracted the attention of Christian and Jewish theologians. Most of Ibn Rushd work was lost or destroyed. What survived, did so in Latin, was studied a great deal during the Renaissance. Two centuries earlier, a Persian scholar, Ibn Sina (980-1037, born in Bukhara), had laid the basis for a study of logic, science, philosophy, politics and medicine.

It was his philosophical ideas contained in other works, and transmitted through fragments, which engaged metaphysic questions of substance and being, existence and essence. In subsequent centuries these were to reach Western Europe, where   ̔ Avicenna ̓ was hotly debated. Ibn Sina and Ibn Rushed chafed at the restrictions of religious orthodoxy, etc.

The ninth century Baghdad heretic Ibn Rawandi wrote several books that questioned the basic principle of the Big Three- (Judaism, Christian, Islam, from me): the monotheistic religions and their favoured god-in the-sky. In this he went far beyond the Mu ̓tazilite sect to which he had once belonged. The Mu ̓tazilites believed that it was possible to combine rationalism and belief in one god. Some of them rejected the Revelation and insisted that the Quran was a created and not a revealed book. Others strongly criticised the quality of its composition, its lack of eloquence and the ̔impurity ̓ of its language. They insisted that Reason alone dictated obligation to God. Their more extreme followers denounced the Prophet for impiety and having too many wives.           

They utilised rational arguments to explain the world, combining fragments of Greek philosophy with speculation based on their own studies and observation. The Quran was seen as extraneous to this project. Mu ̔tazilite thinkers developed theories to explain the physical world: bodies were conceptualised as agglomerations of atoms; a distinction was drawn between substance and accident; all phenomena could be explained through the inherence of atoms that constituted bodies. They speculated endlessly to try and understand location and movement in the universe. Was the Earth immobile? If so, why? What was the nature of fire? Was there a void in the heart of the universe?

Remarkably, in the first half of the ninth century this sect acquired state power for thirty years. Three successive caliphs from al-Mamun to al-mu tasim and al-wathiq forced state officials( as rational believer Caliphs, should not have had forced them ), theologians and Kadis-( judges, from me)- to accept that the Quran was composed by human and was not a revealed text.

Then, Mu tazilites subjected to persecution and scurried away to other parts of the Islamic world, etc.

In the enriched intellectual atmosphere of the mid-ninth century the emergence of a critical voice like Ibn Rawandi`s is unsurprising. His deliberation on the nature of prophets, prophecy and miracles, including Muhammad, were scathing. He argued that religious dogmas were always inferior to reason, because it was only through reason that one could attain integrity and moral stature . The ferocity of his assault first surprised, then united Islamic and Jewish theologians against him, who denounced him mercilessly. Ibn Rawandi responded by demonstrating that miracles were simply the hocus-pocus of magicians. Far from exempting his own religion from these strictures, he included the Revelation that produced the Quran as patently fake. For him the Quran was    neither revealed nor an original piece of work. Far from being a literary masterpiece, it was repetitive and unconvincing. He had started as Believer, but ended up as an atheist. His path must have been a hard and lonely one. None of his original works survives. What is known of him and his writings is almost exclusively through the texts of Muslim and Jewish critics who devoted tomes to refuting his heresies, etc. Abbreviated version of Chapter 6, The joy of heresy, The Clashes of Fundamentalisms, Tariq Ali

* Tareq ibn Ziyad, a Muslim Moor general conquered Part of Spain, they called it Andalusia, its capital Cordoba, on 711ac.

The roots of Wahabism

At the time of Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahab was born on 1703, The Arabian Peninsula`s economy was mainly derived from petty local trade, revenue from pilgrims to Mecca and Medina and tribes` organised rackets. This was the context in which, he heralded a new revivalist sect. His theologian father defended an ultra-orthodox eighth century interpretation of Muslim law. Tired of tending date palms and grazing cattle, his young son began to preach locally for a return to the ̔pure beliefs̓ of olden times. He opposed the worship of Prophet Muhammad, Condemned Muslims who prayed at the shrines of holy men, criticised the custom of marking graves, stressed the ̔unity of one god ̓, and denounced all non-Sunni and even some Sunni groups( including the Caliph in Istanbul, capital of Uthman empire) as heretics and hypocrite. All this provided a politico-religious justification for an ultra-sectarian Jihad against other Muslims, specially the Shia ̔heretics ̓ and including the Ottoman empire. These views were hardly original. Puritanism had always had its defenders. Its social prescriptions, insistence on the stoning to death of adulterers , the amputation of thieves and public execution of criminals- that created real problem in 1740. Religious leaders in the region objected strongly when he began to practice what he preached. Annoyed by the nonsense, the emir of the town of Uyayna asked him to leave the city. Four years later, In 1744 Ibn Wahab arrived in Deraiya, another small town. The bandit-emir, Muhammad Ibn Saud- ancestor of contemporary Saudi Arabia kings- received him. He understood at once that Ibn Wahab`s teachings might further his military ambition . Ibn Wahab provided theological justification for almost everything Ibn Saud wanted to achieve: a permanent jihad that involved looting other Muslim settlements and towns, and , ultimately, asserting his own rule over neighbouring tribes in an attempt to unite the Peninsula. The emir and Ibn Wahab accorded a binding agreement. To cement binging agreement, Ibn Wahab`s daughter became one of Emir`s wives. He demanded a blanket pledge: under no circumstances should Ibn Wahab ever offer his spiritual allegiance and services to any other emir. Incredibly for a man who defended universality of Islam consented to abide by this restriction. The second demand of emir was downright cynical. However bad it might appear, the preacher must never thwart his ruler from exacting necessary tributes from his subjects!   On this point too, Muhammad Ibn Wahab accommodated to his new patron, reassuring him that soon these tributes would be unnecessary; since Allah promises more material benefits in the shape of ghanima [loot] from unbelievers( Ibn Wahab father and brother both rejected the new dogma). His brother Suleiman pointed out that early leaders of Islam had never denounced other Muslims as purveyor of polytheism and unbelief).

By 1792, the Saudi-Wahabi forces subjugated the cities of Riyadth, Khraj and Qasim, etc. At last, on the request of Ottoman Sultan & Caliph, Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali`s soldiers defeated Wahabis. A century later, Ibn Saud successors allied with British empire, in WW1, to wage Jihad against the   ̔hypocritical ̓ Muslims of the Caliphate- Ottoman empire- and once again established themselves as a regional power. Another and even more powerful imperial state, would later entrust Abdul Aziz ibn Saud with the entire peninsula. Wahabism in its purest form - an unalloyed mixture of confessional rigidity and political opportunism- had become an instrument of the Infidel(imperialism, from me).

* An abridged version of Chapter 9, The Clash of Fundamentalisms, Tariq Ali

Shi'ism

Shī'a Islam, also known as Shi'ite Islam or Shi'ism, is the second largest branch of Islam after Sunni Islam. Shias adhere to the teachings of Muhammad and the religious guidance of his family (who are referred to as the Ahl al-Bayt) or his descendants known as Shia Imams. Shia Islam has divided into many branches. Shia twelver constitutes official religion ideology of the Capitalist State of Iran. Prior to Ismail founding Safavid dynasty on 1501 ac; majority of people who lived on a land, since dictator Reza shah was called Iran, were Sunni believers. Using brute force, Shah Ismail converted his subjects to twelver Shiaism. It is well documented that, to convert population of Tabriz to twelver Shiaism , about 25000 people were ruthlessly massacred, by his order.    

When the dictatorial regime of Shah failed to tackle Capitalism crisis tht broke out, on 1974, it precipitated on to Politico-Economic crisis. It was through wielding the barbaric dictums of Sharia Law- Quran and Hadiths-, that Khomeini`s current was able to crush in the name of Islamic revolution, Iranian popular and radical left Revolution. They brutally began stoning to death, chopping hands, whipping and torturing of the victims. They shamelessly justified torturing of regimes` opponents. And, Liberal Guardian gleefully reported that: at long last, the antitheses of communism was discovered, and it had not overstated. However, if, today Sharia Law- Quran and Hadiths- of Iran is not as harsh as SaudiArabia`s Wahabi sharia law- Quran and Hadiths-, the secret lies at the different conditions of evolving two societies. In the middle of 19th century, parallel with the emerging of liberal thinking , the ̔Babi ̓ social movement,1844-1852, led by ̔Mohammad Shirazi̓ intended to bring about reformism in Shia, he was killed and his followers were persecuted. Then, under the influence of England, a dominant power in Iran, it was transformed from being a radical social movement into ̔Baha'i ̓̓ sect, rejecting political practice. Then, on 1906, Iran was amongst one of two countries in Asia, which accomplished bourgeois/ Constitutional Revolution. Then, on 1908, Social Democratic Party of Iran was founded, etc.   By contrast, Saudi kingdom was established ,on 1932, in a primitive tribal and antecedent to capitalist society, on the basis of Wahabism.

There are a rainbow of apologists, who are hypocritically arguing that, Saudi Arabia's Wahabi/ Salafi sharia law-Quran and Hadiths- and Shia law- Quran and Hadiths- of Iran do not represent true tolerant Islam. These, So-called strands of liberals in west as well as locals, etc, do not have enough gut to confess that:

A- Thanks to the contemporary influence of civil societies and Bourgeois democracy they have shifted views in one way or another from the true Sharia Law- Quran and Hadiths- of Mohammad.

B- The so-called tolerant Islam, Sharia Law- Quran and Hadith- was scathingly criticised by the heroic rational thinkers, particularly on ninth century, so often than not, they were persecuted by tolerant Islam of Sharia Law- Quran and hadith.

7-Firsly, communism is derived from Commune or community. The first term is still used in Sweden, France, etc, which is equivalent to the term of council- a geographical division in a city. The second is employed for council, and also in a broader terms such as world community. Further, at the time of emerging burgers, early nascent of today capitalist classes, and the organisation they constructed at the fringe of and independent of Feudal Aristocratic authority was called commune by French Burgers. Then, as from the first half of nineteenth century the maladies of new social capitalist production was criticised, its alternative society was named as communism/ society of communes- without a state standing above the society. Secondly, in brief, the ex-soviet union and its satellites were state capitalists were a authoritarian states above working classes - never wage-slavery system was abolished in these countries- and they were not Societies of Associated Co-operatives, that were based on: from each according to her/his ability and for each according to her/his needs. Thirdly, as it was discussed above the intellectuals of enlightenment age, intellectual representatives of ascending progressive bourgeoisie/capitalist class, such as Voltaire, Diderot, etc, criticised and refuted Ideology of Religion and fully dispensed of it. Then, Marx through developing ̏Materialist Conception of History ̋, he expounded that : since the Homo-sapiens established  the first primitive societies, before they emerging as philosopher, politician, poet, or there arise religion, kingdom, etc; they had to engage both to producing their means of subsistence to survive and reproducing their generation.  Therefore, human beings created gods, not the reverse.

So, what distinguishes the central characteristic of the society of commune or communism is the ̏ Society of Co-operative Associations ̋; and believing or unbelieving of Religion Ideology is a secondary matter. It is interesting to mention that, there are too many atheists, particularly in the west, but they are not adherents of communism or society of communes. Fourthly, during the cold war, it was a Goebbilsian lie by capitalist representatives portrayed western countries as free countries!

8-AS class struggle intensified in South Africa on 1980s, Church of England took out its shares held at South African companies.

9- In Quran and Arabic Language the words ̏Abd and Abdullah ̋ and their equivalents In Persian language ̏Bandeh and Bandeh Khoda ̋ both mean as slave and slave of god and not creature and ̏creature of god ̋. In Persian language the word ̏Bandeh and Bandeh Khoda ̋- the slave and slave of god-ˊ have been so entrenched in people`s tradition that they usually call respectively themselves ̏Bandeh ̋ and addressee ̏Bandeh Khoda ̋.

10- Both ideologies of Christianity and Islam are originated from the barbaric Ideology of Judaism. Pursuant to the latter, Female is appallingly degraded and she holds one half of man`s intelligence; when an observant Jew is going to make love with her wife, he spreads a cloth, having a hole on it, and cares his body should not touch hers. Thus, female degradation and her inferiority in Islam, though absolutely repugnant, are inherited from barbaric Judaism, as eye for eye, stoning to death, chopping hands, etc. Finally, it is on the basis of Torah, old testament, that the Apartheid and criminal state of Israel has occupied west Bank and oppressing Palestinian people.

11- On 1960, Patrick Lumumba, the great Nationalist of Congo, Ex-colony of Belgium , was labelled as ashamedly Communist Agent by the US Imperialism and plotted an unsuccessful coup d'état against him. However, Patrick Lumumba was later captured, killed and dissolved his  dead body in a container of acid. Why? Because, he wanted to pursue independent policy and was bold enough to refuse serving as a stooge of American Imperialism & co.

12-on 5 July 1977, General Zia ul Haq had overthrown Secular Government of Zulfekar Ali Bhutto and established Sharia Law, based on ̏Quran and Hadiths ̋. As the result, Saudi Arabia pumped money and sent huge quantities of Wahabi literature to Pakistan. Too many mosques/Madrasas were built in Pakistan and children and youngsters started as Taleb, seminary student, to learn Wahabism and later on become Taleban of Pakistan and Afghanistan.

13- On 1979, Khomeini came to power and set up Sharia Law, etc.

14- Of course, Syrian regime was not faultless. However, as soon as, it was revealed that Wahabi currents are going to exploit the situation, US, UK and France should have been alarmed, if they were humanist, and seeking a peaceful democratic solution. They did not. And, On 2012, respectively, Kofi Anan- previous general Secretary of UN, and then Lakhtar Ebrahimi- representative of UN- peace missions were torpedoed. And, Imperialist powers and & co have continued cynically accusing Assad regime of destroying the country, etc.