Capitalism, Religion Ideology and the classes of world wage-slaves


I remember long time ago, I saw a picture in the reception of a Dental Practice. Men were queued to get mobilized at the eve of WW1, and underneath of it read: England had a decaying tooth.

A-As a mode of commodity production, Capitalism is fundamentally based on the appropriation of surplus value of the Class of Wage-slaves, which is being realized through the congelation of the labour power of wage- slave onto the commodities(1). Thus, the first and foremost objective of capitalism, and its human embodiment capitalist class, is to extracting as much surplus value/accumulating capital as possible. And, to gain this inhumane goal, capitalism fashioned the social structure of state machinery, judiciary, police, political and cultural agencies (art, literature, movie, theatre, show), moral precept, educational institutions, Superstitious Ideology of Religion, vast mass media, so on and so forth, on the one hand, and employing monstrous war machine, on the other hand, at the service of the insatiable thirst for expropriating surplus value from the class of wage-slaves.

B-Since the dissolution of primitive communes and arising then of the division of society into two antagonistic classes of exploiter and exploited, dominator and dominated, henceforth the class struggle and war developed as the Motor of History(2). When, the pseudo-Socialism of Ex-Soviet Union was imploded on December 1991, Francis Fukuyama, Bourgeois Political Scientist & Political economist and Senior George Bush, then president of US Super-imperialism, hubristically declared respectively: the end of History and the dawn of a new world order. However, neither the inherent contradictions of capitalist mode of production was vanished nor the demon of war and aggression policies were eradicated. Still, dictatorship of capital ruled the manufacturing and service industries and fresh economic crises descended on capitalist countries(3). No sooner than senior George Bosh pompously declared the onset of new world order on 11 Sept 1991, supposedly we were going to live in a world free from war, carnage, destruction, slaughter, maiming, injury and torture, on 1 October 1991, the hideous spectre of war hovered over the Bosnia and Herzegovina. since then, the destructive war machine of world capitalism has been kept rolling on and thundering.

Capitalism`s war machine and global trade

Aside from Commerce / trade proper as a means of circulation of commodities, which its origin goes to thousands of years back, since its inception in 15th century in England, Capitalism sprouted as a global mode of production(4). However, the conquest of world markets was not simply proceeded as a peaceful competition( though a sort of war) between the rival powers, nor their   capturing of native markets, rather, by way of using gunboat policy they opened the gates of dominated frontiers to capitalism.  

Class struggle and war machine in the national domain

Marx defines the struggle between Capitalist Class and the Class of wage-slaves both as open and hidden confrontation .

1- Capital would exercise no compunction and scruple for exploiting the Class of wage-slaves, and would force wage-slave to labour even 24 hours, if it could. Therefore, any measure of placing the burden of capitalist crisis on the shoulders of the Class of wage-slaves, as sacking, closing down factory, lengthening labour time, reducing wage/means of subsistence, and etc, classified as open war of aggression and conquest to the conditions of living and work of the wage-slaves. Further, capital will use the Opium of religion, as a sort of psychotherapy and nationalistic fervour, divide and rule policies, bribing compromising labour representatives, blacklisting, sacking, jailing, deporting, torturing and killing labour activists (5)at the service  of extracting surplus labour. By contrast, wage-slaves would resist and fight back capital aggression, and dependent on the balance of forces, wage-slaves would even launch attack and make offensive on the capital territory,too. When wage-slaves are in the defensive and demoralized stance though, class struggle would not vanish, but, wage-slaves resort to much defensive and also passive war, attempting slow down labouring, abstain from work, using variety of tricks to evade labouring- no wander why, capital would checking of the wage-slave going to toilet- they would gossip behind the capital, etc. All of these constitute open and hidden war of the Class of wage-slaves versus capitalist class; until the Class of wage-slaves might triumph in the final titanic clash with Capital leading   to, in place of wage-slavery system, building an alternative post-capitalist social   system of ̏from each according to her/his ability and for each according to her/his needs ̋.

Battle for Democracy

2- Liberal Democracy is a but rather recent system of Capitalist governance. For instance, in UK the Universal suffrage was recognized to both genders on 1928. Liberal Democracy exercise dictatorship in the work place, because it entirely exclude Class of wage-slaves from the right of engaging in the process of planning and running both manufacture and service sectors. Further, without both manufacture and service domains it recognizes a degree of democratic rights, including right to vote for the Class of wage-slaves, on the one hand, and the monopoly of governance to the minority of Capitalist class, on the other.

English bourgeois Democratic Revolution of 1647, though was primarily aimed at submitting the absolute monarchy of Charles 1- who claimed his rule emanated from the grace of god of Catholicism- under the sway of Aristocracy and unfledged Bourgeoisie. However, they were the toilers who had to fight as foot soldier and win the war for them. As the King was defeated, both Bourgeoisie and Aristocracy wanted to make rapprochement with him and get rid of the ̏new model army̋. However, soldiers resisted demobbing, and proclaimed they were entitled to have the right to elect and being elected to parliament, in other words, as a majority, they rule the county(6). At the time of revolution, English parliament constituted from House of Lords, i.e. from hereditary peers or Lords, and members of the House of Commons from wealthy, who were elected by the right of property ownership. The election fraud was rampant and there were notorious Rotten Boroughs, no matter how small they were, however, they were entitled to elect from one to five MPs, whereas a big city like Manchester had denied the right of electing even a single MP(member of Parliament). Now, we travel about two hundred years to arrive at the early of nineteenth century.

At this very time, still widespread election fraud and rotten boroughs was existed. On 16 August 1819, a peaceful demonstration of 60,000 people, shear majority wage-slaves, who demanding electoral reform at the St Peter`s fields of Manchester were attacked by the military massacred 11 and injured at least 140 people(7).

WE see that, the British Capitalist class`s claim that democracy-in fact Bourgeois democracy- has been rooted in England for many centuries is a charade. So far as Bourgeois Democracy and universal suffragette is concerned, it bears rather recent history- it was realized in 1928. Confronting the long battle of the Class of wage-slaves` aspiration for democracy, British Capitalist ruling class wielded a dual strategy. They stubbornly resisted to giving in and brutally smashed Class of wage-slaves movements for democracy, on the one hand, and adopted piecemeal retreats through enacting a number of electoral reforms, which secured Parliament as a Bulwark of Capitalist mode of commodity production.

With regard to other western capitalist countries, we should stress that the Bourgeois Democracy was established more or less within the same time scale as England. For instance, Civil right Movement in America occurred in 1960th.

Global class struggle and Capitalism war machine

As we explained above,, since capital`s inception in 15th century in England, there ran a bloody rivalry coupled by the machination between the competing powers unabated until we arrive at the explosion of WW1. The latter exhibited the crisis of capitalism now forced a devastating showdown between the imperialist powers. However, despite   16 million dead and 31 million wounded, it failed to overcome crisis. As such, WW2 conflagration ominously looked inevitable, and no wonder, why savage Fascism, as a tool in the service of capital was happily greeted by the broad section of capitalist countries(8). Combined with the apocalyptic devastation and twice casualties and wounded as WW1, apart from manufacturing much advanced conventional killing armament, WW2 marked the invention of the horrifying nuclear weapons. And US super-power earned the pride of being the first capitalist state that used nuclear weapon against Japan- killing many hundred thousand civilians and also innumerable people suffered from the collateral damages. The hugely colossal calamity of WW2, through the destruction of infrastructure( reducing constant capital) opened up the post war booming period. Nevertheless, in the wake of WW2, the continuance of the Capitalist mode of commodity did not save human race from the menacing class struggle and accompanied ceaseless wars. Yet, killing war machines roared on, many bloody coup d'états were engineered, particularly by the US super-Imperialism, fearsome nuclear arsenals were built up and military industrial complexes kept developing too. There loomed a new frightening phenomenon of cold war, which bewitched the human race, twice world drawn to the precipice of nuclear war(9); and bestial ideological weapons developed too. And, now, capitalism quagmired at the Structural Crisis, and it seems Hawks dominating White House and they envisioned plotting a long period of war and unrest(10), and thus we are on the cross road of barbarism or socialism, as Rosa Luxemburg coined it.  

Superstitious Ideology of Religion in the service of Capital and class war

Marx, in his materialist conception of history,   enlightens us that, before human beings engaged in politics, intellectual, cultural, religious activities, being king, prophet, vicar, priest, rabbi, mullah, poet, philosopher etc, they had to produce and reproduce their lives. He also expounded that a human beings` dual intercourse with one another and with nature, among other things, the premise of idea, Ideology of religion or Hegel`s world spirit constituted an inverse or ignorant understanding of human beings about the laws of nature (11). Marx inferred that, to put the latter misconception/inverse understanding right,... it was not the idea or gods who created human beings, but, human beings made the gods(12), and thought/mind is the resultant of human beings` mental activity, similar to physical one, it required to consume energy. Thus, disregarding whatever revelations, Moses, Jesus and Mohammad, claimed, had come to them,   they were the product of their related conditionsor the level of human beings` productive forces of the time. As such, the kind of food and the way they ate, sort of clay homes sheltered, the very primitive lights they used, clothes and footwear they wore , languages spoke, traditions and social codes they practiced, etc, all were products of their age or social conditions, rather than dropped by the imaginary gods down. In short, Moses, Jesus and Mohammad had lived at the expense of the labour and fruit of other people, and, therefore, they had the luxury of setting themselves free fromlabouring and brow sweating to daydreaming, instead. In any case, with the division of society into two oppressor and oppressed classes, the Superstitious Religion Ideology, as a powerful and vicious weapon was employed at the service of class struggle by the ruling classes.

None of the leaders of capitalist classes as openly and frankly as Napoleon, as to the profitability of religion ideology at the service of capitalism, uttered: society is impossible without inequality!(exclamation mark from me), Inequality is intolerable without a code of morality, and a code of morality unacceptable without religion. And, Marx famously countered: religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of the heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is opium of the people.

The ideology of religion serves capitalism as a dual purpose:

  • As opium:

    It disconnects fortune of the wage-slaves from the real condition of living, i.e. of the division of society into oppressing capitalist class ,on the one hand, and oppressed Class of wage-slaves, on the other. For instance, the designation of ̏Muslims ̋ and ̏Muslim countries ̋, both hiding the class basis of the people and the capitalist nature of the country- Islamic Republic of Iran, Saudi Arabia, with its national flag inscribed on it: there is but one god and the picture of an unsheathed sabre, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Jewish state of Israel, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan etc, all are capitalist countries, one class exploiting and the opposite is exploited. As opium, all the Superstitious Religion Ideologies, and particularly Abrahami Superstitious Religion Ideologies of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Mohammedi(both Christianity and Islam basically founded on Judaism) , are favourable tools at the service of capitalism, across the capitalist world. As such, Superstitious Religion Ideology cover up both exploitation of the Class of wage-slaves and fiercely hostile towards the aspirations and objective of the Class of wage-slaves, i.e. a society from each according to her/his ability and for each according to her/his needs . Last but not least, Superstitious Ideology of Religion, particularly Superstitious Ideology of Islam, is now a rabid enemy of Civil Society, Democracy and Democratic Rights: like right to life- banning the practice of beheading, hanging, stoning to death, flogging-, right to expression and personal belief, right to assembly, organizing and writing , right to strike, gender right, right of free love, decriminalization of extra marriage affair for both sexes;having not all these been inherited from Judaism and Moses’ teachings?.  

  • Superstitious Ideology of religion, as a new brand of naked and brutal Fascism, a political tool in the service of capitalism and class struggle, which virulently denying democratic rights, the existence of Class society, class division, naked reality of the exploitation of the Class of wage-slaves and their class aspirations.

    Since 1926, when British empire succeeded, by way of mobilizing the reactionary Afghani Mullahs(predecessors of Mujahedin and Taliban), to overthrow the progressive government of ̏Aman ulah khan ̋̋ the king of Afghanistan(13). The latter marked a watershed of applying the Superstitious Muslim Ideology to suppressing democratic and Class struggles of the toilers and the Class of wage-slaves by imperialist powers and their local allies.

  • on July 5, 1977, General Zia-ul-haq launched a coup de tat and declared Islamic Republic of Pakistan, he based it on Shari Law, started to implement chopping hands, executing, public flogging and hanging- he was a darling of Washington.    

  • Then, on 01 April 1979, Khomeini faction of Capitalist classfounded Islamic Republic of Iran, a state based on the Shari Law of superstitious Ideology of Shia sect(14).

  • Now, on the heel of prosecution of Shari Law by Shia sect of Islam   comes the Vahabi Sunni sect of Saudi Arabia to execute Shari Law. Upon the Ex-soviet Union invention into Afghanistan, on October 1979, to avenge the latter for her Vietnam defeat, American Imperialism (15)and her allies carried out exact prescription of Machiavellian doctrine of   ̏ the end justifies the means ̋.What was most suitable tool than the Vahabi Shari Law. American Imperialism turned Afghanistan into a cauldron of experimenting savagery of Vahabi sect of Islam . Prior to US Imperialism and her allies intervention, Afghanistan was a semi-secular society and enjoyed a degree of progress. However, by arming murderer Mujahedin, it is true, America took revenge and defeated Ex-Soviet Union; in the mean time, it devastated Afghanistan and over and above created Frankishtine Monster of Al-Qaida. Thereafter, neither Afghanistan beheld a glimpse of repose nor class struggle, aggression, war and drive for conquest came to halt. America and UK attack to Iraq provided a golden opportunity to Al-Qaida to flourish and spread the banner of Vahabi Shari Law beyond Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan to faraway lands. However, when Arab Spring dawned both Imperialist powers and their allies took by surprise and Al-Qaida was rendered impasse as well. Nonetheless, Imperialist powers & co set to engineer derailing the Arab Spring on the one hand and through inevitable intervention in Libya they breathed new life to Al-Qaida and Shari law. Then, the same machination repeated in Syria. Here, alongside Saudi Arabia`s Vahabi thugs of Al-Nosrah and Co a new breed of thugs, i.e., IS thugs was created. And, now history repeated once more, though not exactly as previously . America , Saudi Arabia, and co, created Al-Qaida in Afghanistan, but it turned into a Frankishtine Monster, harassing US imperialism and her allies, as well. IS thugs ,too, now as plan B was plotted by the same Imperialist powers and co(16), in order to redrawing the geopolitical map of middle east. Whilst they were relentlessly insisting at waging murderous war to overthrowing Syrian government. Upon Abu Baker Al-Baghdadi(17) declared himself as khalif, Imperialist powers rushed to utter that, in the wake of WW1, colonial powers did injustice to the Middle east domains of Othman Empire and the only way out of unrest in Iraq should be resolved through a peaceful mechanism! In truth, they wanted to use IS thugs(17) in the service of their hegemonic objectives, i.e. first and foremost bringing to power a pro-US and & co regime in Iraq and toppling the Syrian government, settling account with Hezbollah of Lebanon   and putting pressure on rival Capitalist regime of Iran-amidst rivalry with Russia in the setting of bloody emergence of a multi-polar world. However, it was transpired that, the Frankishtine Monster of IS thugs are pursuing their own agenda, rather than playing a sheer poodle of game setters.

    Now we witness that, Imperialist powers &co using ruthless and barbaric Shari Law in the pursuit of class struggle and waging wars. AS the result, Thugs of Shari Law of Vahabi Sect are operating in the vast swathe of Countries, which holding Islamic states or tradition of Superstitious Islamic Ideology; also in the countries which holding ethnic minority with Islamic Superstition tradition, such as Nigeria. Further, even we behold the Influence of Vahabi thugs in the heart of Imperialist countries too. Thus, In the backdrop of structural crisis of Capitalism, and parallel with the marching of the traditional Fascist movements in the western capitalist countries, a new brand of Fascism of Shari Law of superstitious Ideology of Islam is being exploited in the class Struggle along the traditional tools of class struggle against world Classes of Wage-slaves.

    The classes of World wage-slaves

  • We saw that, the Superstitious Ideology of Religion has been profited doubly the inhumane Capitalism exploitation of wage-slaves. As an ideology, all Superstitious Ideologies of Religion, in one way or another, sanctifying capitalism, and covering up the division of capitalist society and the exploitation of the class of wage-slaves by the capitalist class, etc. For instance, since the rising of Capitalism in England, as loyal stooge of capital, Church of England     exploited its vicious vast institution to making wage-slaves blind obedience to their objective condition of exploitation(18). Considering the Superstitious Ideology of Religion as a political instrument at the service of capitalism, it is suffice, to make mention of the IS thugs.

    So, What is to be done with the Capitalism and Superstitious Ideology of religion? The answer is: the class of wage-slaves got to go beyond the capitalist mode of production, which aimed at making profit and, in place of the latter, building a society of co-operative associations, which will produce for the needs of individuals, or from each according to her/his ability and for each according to her/his needs. Thereby, the superstitious Ideology of religion, too, will eventually fade away, in totality. Anti-capitalist struggle has many fronts and dimensions. One of these fronts, of course, should be ideological, cultural and anti-religious – and not just anti-Islamic- struggle.

  • Today, everywhere, with the process of concentration of capital and class division(19), wage-slaves and their families constitute a sheer majority of the population. However, everywhere too, working classes are blighted from disunity, fragmentation and a lack of clear Manifesto. Whereas, a host of problems, including detaching of economic, every day demands, from political practice are dogging the unity of the class of wage-slaves, worldwide. However, outbreak of capitalism structural crisis at the end of 2007, has furnished an objective condition to overcoming disunity and fragmentation within the class of wage-slaves. Everywhere, capitalist classes are placing the burden of crisis on the shoulders of the class of wage-slaves , as the result, unconsciously creating opportunity for wage-slaves to shed their docile mentality and gradually displaying listening ears, on the one hand, and coming out to hold meetings, going on strikes, holding rallies and marches, etc. For instance, in the America, the heart-land of world capitalism, two fundamentally important developments were flowered, i.e.   market economy has been unendingly under fire, on the one hand, and a fresh light is being shed to Socialism/ post capitalism System of social production(20), on the other. Thus, the continuation of the Structural Crisis of Capitalism, and its brutal austerity measures have supplied favourable conditions for the classes of world wage-slaves to possibly overcoming a dual problematic of what sort of organization and for what kind of objective. WE are strongly in favour of single organization of the Class of Wage-Slaves, which fighting the whole aspects of economic and democratic demands on the one hand and agitating for the overthrowing of inhumane mode of capitalism, based on exploitation of the class of wage-slaves, and establishing a society of associated co-operatives aimed at producing for the social needs of every individual, in other words, from each according to her/his ability and for each according to her/his needs.

Morad Azimi


1- For further information, see Capital 1, Grundrisse or Theory of Surplus Value, Karl Marx

2- See German Ideology, Karl Marx and Fredrik Engels

3- Mexico crisis of 1994, etc.

4- The discovery of America(year 1492), the rounding of Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising Bourgeoisie. Modern industry has established the world market, Communist Manifesto, January 1848, Karl Marx and Fredrik Engels.

5-Crucifying labour activists, Fynes` History of Northumberland and Durham Miners, by Richard Fynes, Blyth, Published 1873, Fourth Print 1985

6- The debate between generals and the representatives of soldier committees, which historically is well-known as ̏ Putney Debate ̋ was boiled down to this question: who is entitled to vote? Generals argued just those who muster the property. Therefore, if masses, who did not own property, to get right to vote the sanctity of ownership will be violated. ̏In a series of dramatic debates with General Tom Fairfax- supreme commander of Army-, deputy commander, General Oliver Cromwell, and latter`s son-in-law, general Henry Ireton in Civil War England of 1647, the levellers argued for democracy for the first time in British history ̋. And, Colonel Thomas Rainsborough, leader of soldiers` Council, declared at the Putney debate:     ̏ for really I think that the poorest he that is in England hath a life to live, as the greatest he   ̋. Eventually, Generals, the guardian of property and enemy of peoples democracy, crushed soldiers` council and levellers movement and Colonel Thomas Rainsborough, the loyal leader of soldiers, was mysteriously killed. Thus, the first toilers attempt to gain Democracy and threatened the rule of capital emerged in England almost four centuries previously . The levellers, The Putney Debates, Geoffrey Robertson, QC

7- The massacre was given the name Peterloo in an ironic comparison to the Battle of Waterloo, which had taken place four years previously. The ̏Vote how it was won and how it was undermined ̋, Paul Foot, Penguin Books

8-Churchil visited Italy in 1927 and wrote to his wife, ̏This country gives the impression of discipline, order, goodwill and smiling faces. A happy strict school....The Fascists have been saluting in their impressive manner all over the place .   ̋ He told a fascist newspaper, ̏ if I had been an Italian, I am sure I should have been wholeheartedly with you from the start to the finish against the bestial appetites and passions of Leninism ̋. Life on the track, memoirs of socialist worker, Frank Henderson.

9- Once, US launched a missile to Ex-Soviet Union and second time a US pilot dropped a nuclear bomb mistakenly on to US itself.

10- For instance, clashes at the heart of Europe, centred on Ukraine crisis and ominous sabre rattling at the South East Asia between Us Super-Imperialism and allies against China; Al-Qaida and IS thugs ruthlessly killing and wreaking havoc in the Middle east and North African countries.

11-Primitive human beings` insecure conditions of survival and inability to understand and challenging the forces of nature conceived the origin of the existence of supernatural beings or gods. Even now, we come across the deposits of such superstitious ideas in Abrahami superstitious religions, such as, attributing eclipse of sun to the act of god, etc.

12-For more information see: The German Ideology, Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels

13- The clash of Fundamentalisms, Crusades, Jihads and Modernity, Tariq Ali

14-Previously, on 1977, Iranian capitalism plunged into a severe capital crisis and Shah`s semi-secular dictatorship failed to head off the revolutionary fervent. On the back of it, there emerged a dozen of left wing currents and the ground became fertile for their potential growth and probable unity, centring on a formulated programming. Fearful of Iran might be dropped into the lap of Pseudo-Socialist ex-Soviet Union, both Imperialist powers and native secular and semi-secular strata of Iranian capitalist class threw their support behind Khomeini faction. it was transpired that only the Shari Law of Superstitious Ideology of Islam, possessing such reservoir of savagery and brutality that could be wielded to   crushing Iranian Class of wage-salve`s revolution. Khomeini and his lieutenants had no hesitation whatsoever to execute the Shari Law. In those eventful days, respectable liberal Guardian, the mouthpiece of English Liberalism, gaily commented : at last, the antithesis of Communism was discovered. In one sense, it was not bluffing. Khomeini unfailingly prosecuted his prophet Mohammad`s deed. Following, Mohammed forced Beni Qurayzah tribe into unconditional surrender, the next morning narrow trenches were dug in the ground and all men were one by one beheaded and women were taken slave(The Prophet Muhammad, A biography, Barnaby Rogerson, pp 166-167). Commanding suppressing machine of Shari Law, Khomeini`s faction of capitalist class set to stoning, chopping hands, with or without kangaroo trials, they sentenced and executed thousands of members of   opposition. They subjected prisoners to brutally physical and psychological tortures, even they executed sixteen year old youths solely accused of writing anti- regime slogans on the wall ; and to create an environment of terror, they   published the list of executed   opposition members on the national news papers, etc. To keep purity of Shari Law Cemeteries, they allocated separate one for Infidels! And, now Imperialist powers- supposedly upholders of democracy, including free expression of belief - exultantly observed how effectively and brutally Shari Law of Shia Sect efficacious of administering Shari Law at the altar of capital and saving Iran from falling to the camp of pseudo-Socialist Ex-soviet Union. To make a long story short. Several years following the suppression of revolution, at the end of Iran and Iraq war, several thousand prisoners- though, even a part of them had already been tortured and fully served their terms of imprisonment- nonetheless, they were executed, simply because they did not repent their political beliefs.

15- When, Jingo Ronald Reagan became the president of USA, on 1980, he called Russian invasion to Afghanistan, as the latter`s Vietnam.

16- Immediately, Following the Imperialist powers and co machination led to IS thugs to conquer swathes of Syria and Iraq, the same powers used their vast propaganda machine to portray barbaric IS thugs as a Islamic state of ..., or ISIS, and then, ISIL!!!  

17- there are strong claims that, Abu Baker Al-Baqdadi, head of IS thugs had been trained by the Criminal and Apartheid state of Israel. Besides the revelations of Afghani TV channel of   ̏Toloa ̋ and Global news, it is illuminating to disclose that, though Al-Qaida exhibit hostility towards Israel, at the very peak of barbaric bombardment of Gaza, by Israel, IS thugs maintained their complete silence.

18- Dr Joseph Priestley-133-1804- a rational enlightenment, a materialist, a Unitarian, a scientist, supporter of French Revolution and a political reformer. Dr Joseph Priestley`s books and Laboratory were destroyed by a ̔Church and King   ̓mob in Birmingham in 1791.The Making of the English Working Class, E.P. Thompson, pp, 28-29

19-, Thanks to the capital concentration and capital crisis, petty bourgeois/small middle class- capitalist intellectuals and their mass media designate it as middle class- layers is undergoing a constant process of disintegration and as the result it is being shrunken.

20- Imagine Living in a Socialist USA, Edited by Frances Goldin, Debby Smith, and Michael Steven Smith, for instance a of sign of reviving of Socialism.

Morad Azimi