Syria`s conundrum

Since the dissolution of primeval communal ownership of land, all history has been a history of class struggles, of struggles between exploited and exploiting, between dominated and dominating classes at every stage of social development...Marx(1).

Phase one

The unilateral Aggression Doctrine of American New conservatives(2)

The barbaric war in Syria is not a single and isolated war, rather just one manifestation of the need of world capitalism- submerged in the structural crisis- to wage wars. Upon setting his foot into the white House, as new president of American capitalism, on 20 January 2001, George W Bush labelled Iran, North Korea and Cuba as the axis of evil. It begged to question, was it a statement made by George W Bush, from a high moral ground, whose capitalist country, based on wage-slavery system, had been repeatedly targeted by the coup de tats and dominated, exploited and attacked, using nuclear, orange gas, cluster, phosphorous bombs, depleted uranium shells, by the axis of evil. Those countries that invented ultra-modern psychological and physical torturing techniques, such as water boarding, etc. Or it was an arrogant and bellicose utterance by the new president of the sole super power of the day.

The opening of 21st century was not yet seen china flexing its economic muscle, nor the Russia succeeding to overcoming the chaos which had been left over from the implosion of state capitalism of the ex-Soviet Union. No wander, why, the right wing historians postulated American capitalism as an emulation of the Roman empire(3).

However, though the US super power was wielding an undisputed military superiority , yet at the same time, it was struggling with economic decline, in other words, plighted with the fundamental problem of the capital accumulation/producing sur-plus value. Therefore, it was imperative to by exploiting its military superiority to turn around its economic decline. Thus, there appeared a chart redrawing the map of Middle East countries, showing establishing a client state here and dismembering another one there. And this plan surely would have been executed by none other means than through launching military aggressions. It is a well known expression that, war is to prosecuting the peace time politics by military instruments. Now, to fulfil this ominous project, the American Imperialism just needed an excuse to unleash its awesome military fire power. Similar to the assassination of the Archduke Frantz Ferdinand of the Austrian crown prince that triggered WW1, the dubious attacks on Twin Towers of the World Trade Centre supplied a convenient pretence to George W Bush administration setting the formidable military machine into action, as coined the war against terrorism(4). Taliban regime was attacked on 7 October 2001 and the regime was swiftly toppled but not annihilated, for the leadership managed to escape. Buoyant with this easy victory, the New-cons turned guns towards the oil reach Iraq and by fabricating a flimsy claim, i.e., Sadam Hussein has stockpiled Weapons of mass destruction(5) and threatening the security of the world!, attacked and destroyed the whole lot of Iraq`s infrastructure(6) and within the span of one month overthrew the regime. New-cons thrilled with joy. Not bad at all, so far so good. Now then, American Imperialism contemplated to catch a much bigger fish, i.e., attacking its old foe, Iran. However, American war machine was bogged down in both the battle fields of Iraq and Afghanistan and eventually defeated. Thus, the first stage of American doctrine of unilateral intervention with the objective of dominating the whole middle east was unravelled. But, who benefited from the defeat of American Imperialism.? Undoubtedly, by coming to power of a Shi.ite government in Iraq(7), Iran picked the fruit.

Phase two

American Imperialism`s multilateral aggression doctrine

On the eve of the American invasion into Iraq, America attempted by winning the UN Security Council`s resolution to put up a semblance of legitimacy to its aggression into Iraq. Though Russia and China, both were the permanent members of the Security Council, they did not feel strong enough to challenge the US super power. But, France did. As a permanent member of Security Council and being deeply angry against being excluded from taking part in the booty of Iraq, France threw down the gauntlet and fiercely challenged the US at the Security council. In any event, America advanced with its aggression plan and attacked Iraq. However, the doomed Iraq and Afghanistan adventures brought about huge financial losses, and more importantly the death of many thousands of American soldiers and many more physically and mentally were injured. Thus, the war of aggression fostered a dramatic hostility against American military intervention doctrine. Hence, New-cons were forced to relinquish their unilateral intervention policy; and American Imperialism adopted a multilateral aggression doctrine, instead. Further, the American debacle furnished a golden opportunity to China, by leaps and bounds developing its economy and Russia pulled itself together as well.

As, it was mentioned above, George W Bush declared Iran as an evil state. Because, since coming to power, upon downfall of the dictatorial regime of Shah, the New oppressive Regime of Iran fell foul with America. Sensing insecurity, on the one hand, Iran strengthened its military power and developed its Nuclear project on the other; as deterrents against the America invasion to Iran. But, if America would reconcile with France`s recalcitrant attitude during the Iraq invasion; emerging Iran as a major power in the middle east will not be tolerated, neither by the big brother- US imperialism- nor with Israel, whose racist and criminal existence has been hinged on its military superiority in the Middle East. Therefore, The Us and her allies started making cry over Iran`s attempt to building nuclear bomb and threatening the world security, which was utterly disingenuous. What was really at stake was either pursuing their project of changing regime or  clipping Iran`s ambition as claiming a major power in the Middle East. Hence forcing Iran to recognise the Us supremacy in the Middle East instead, and in tandem with the latter acknowledging the Israel`s hegemony too. Thus, in practical term, Iran`s climb down would be translated into making compromise in respect of her influence in the Syria, Iraq and Lebanon.

Arab Spring provides the ground for launching American multilateral aggression doctrine

What was named as Arab spring, was in reality a dual demands of bread and freedom by the Arab working classes(8), in other words, they were seeking economic betterment and democratic rights(9). However, the realisation of these demands basically required overthrowing the capitalist Arab countries. Hence, the Arab Spring was a huge challenge to the national and international capitalism, and in consequence it had to be nipped in the bud. Thus, American imperialism and her allies , on the one hand, censored the economic dimension of the Arab spring and, distorted its democratic potentials, on the other(10). Thus, they supported the reactionary currents, which holding the superstitious religion ideology of Islam and propping up the so-called liberal currents(11) in the Arab countries. Thus, they succeeded to warding off revolutionary storm, albeit for the time being, and maintaining the status quo of the anti-working class Arab states. However, the attitude of American imperialism and her allies towards the late Muammar al-Gaddafi, Libyan dictator, turned up radically different. Though, the US and Britain had previously mended their past animosities with him. Nonetheless, his rather independent policies, among others, his advocacy of African unity; and particularly his proposition for substituting gold exchange standard for the dollar earned him sufficient enmity. Therefore, the rising of popular movement against him provided an exceptional pretext to the America and allies        to execute   the multilateral aggression doctrine, so much so that they killing two birds with one stone. The latter meant, on the one hand to ditch him, and making his process of being down fallen as a springboard for launching the multilateral aggression doctrine, on the other.

Rehabilitation of America`s Iraq and Afghanistan debacle

There is no doubt, that the Iraq and Afghanistan defeats and the subsequent development of anti-war protests, effected a dramatic impression to the America`s turnaround from the unilateral aggression doctrine. Therefore, the US imperialism was forced to abandon both the unilateral aggression doctrine and employing a direct military force on the ground(12). Similar to the Twin Towers` pretext, this time round, the Libyan scenario supplied a golden opportunity for launching the multilateral aggression doctrine. It is interesting to recount an English diplomat, who expressed tellingly the secret of intervention to Libya: our victory in Libya will cleanse the painful scars of Iraq and Afghanistan debacles from the memory of American and English general public. Thus, Raising the disingenuous banner of protecting civilians in Libyan rising, they fooled Russia into granting her consent for a security council resolution. Then, missiles blasted down wreaking havoc to the infrastructure of the Libya(13), on the one hand, and with the money and arms from golf states, particularly the Saudi Arabia and Qatar, they recruited the Vahabi (14)murderers alongside the native dissidents to topple Gaddafi.  

The road to Tehran passes through the Damascus

Since Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, the cruel Persian king of the late eighteenth Century, The Islamic Republic of Iran is the first Iranian sovereign state, who claimed as a major power in the Middle East- it holds influence in the Iraq, Syria, Hezbollah of Lebanon. Her persistent challenges to the America (15) and her allies is the core reason for the current carnage in the Syria, as well as the saga of Iranian nuclear project . But how the Syria stumbled and fell into the trap?

On the face of it, the rising in the Syria was constituted an integral component part of the Arab Spring. Quite contrary. Being a close ally of Iran, as early as 2006, Bush administration and Saudi Arabia were meddling in the Syrian affairs and organising opposition there. Hence, contrary to the rising in the Tunisia, Egypt and etc, the rising in Syria was not wholly inspired by the rising in 2011, rather the latter acted as a catalyst, instead. Syria was the only Arab country, where the US ambassador attended at the rally of opposition and expressed her country`s support.

Nonetheless, What is pretty certain, is that the initial overture of the Syrian government, which extended to the popular movement, soon gave in onto suppressing it; whether the regime itself frightened, that it would eventually losing the control or instigated by Iran, does not make difference; what happened, made America and her allies rubbing their hands gleefully .

In the inception of the Arab Spring, Al-Qaida was utterly stunned and became an irrelevant obscurantist entity. Nobody watched TV/internet to see a single black colours of Al-Qaida or hearing the ominous shouts of Allah Akbar-good is great-, neither in the rising of the Tunisia nor on the Maidan-e Al-tahrir of Egypt. But, extending welcome on board to the Al-Qaida by the America and allies in the Libya brought the latter out of cold. Then, in line with the project of settling account with the recalcitrant Iran American imperialism and her allies let loose Al-Qaida murderers to take part in their drive to ousting the regime of Syria. So much so that, Al-Qaida and its affiliated organisations, such is Al-Nosrah and Jihadist`s are now constituting a major portion of the armed rebellions fighting with the government of Syria. However, West, in the interest of their grand design of reshaping the geopolitical map of the Middle East, shamelessly have been overlooking the evil presence of the Al-Qaida and its affiliated forces in Syria; and their committing horrendous atrocities in the battle fields, such as savagely cutting through the breast of the fallen Syrian soldier, grabbing out his heart and eating it or summarily executing the row of semi-naked captured soldiers. And the democratic governments of America, Britain, France, etc have made every possible means to cover up these and similar criminal acts. But, most importantly than the latter, it would be the probable apocalyptic role of the Al-Qaida in the future destination of the ruined Syria.

As it was mentioned above, learning lesson from the west machination in the Libya, Russia and her ally China repeatedly rejected the various versions of the American and allies draft resolutions, which presented to the UN Security Council, with the ultimate aim of securing military intervention; and in their part, the America and allies sabotaged various joint Russian and Chinese proposals for the instituting a peace conference, by demanding a precondition of the removal of the Assad Regime.  

Following the America and her allies failure to obtain the Security Council`s resolution for military involvement, they manufactured a fresh ploy. Over a year ago, citing Syria`s stockpile(16) ofchemical weapons, Barak Obama declared that: using chemical weapon by the Syria is our red line! Thus, the latter provided a vicious instrument in the hands of opposition by using chemical weapons to blame Syrian government instead, and as such providing the America an excuse for surpassing the UN and attacking Syria. This conspiracy was a couple of times exploited, and the most ghastly instance occurred on 21 august 2013. However, eventually the   chemical weapon scenario has led to the process of destroying of the Syria`s chemical weapons and holding a peace conference in Nov, 2013.


War has, so far, made two million people fleeing their home and place of working and sought refuge inside and outside of Syria, which have been enduring appalling conditions of life in the refugee camps; and innumerable people have been killed, maimed and injured. Further, a noticeable part of the Syria brings to mind the gory spectacle of bombarded cities of the Germany at the end of ww2. Why, America and her allies did not concede to choose a peaceful resolution of the conflict and callously fuelled the killing war machine being kept rolling, instead? The answer is simple. Because, they had the noble objective of changing the present balance of power in the Middle East!. However, so far, the Russian unflinching opposition (17)has frustrated America`s design for regime change in Syria, in other words, America`s multilateral aggression doctrine and in consequence her bullying attitude for submitting of dissent voices has suffered a grave setback. The American Exceptionalism doctrine or the world capitalism is dominated by the mono-polar super power of American Imperialism is in fact a multi-polar world capitalism.

We also have to mention, that similar to the cases in Iraq and Libya, the horrible devastation of the Syrian infrastructure has generated lucrative future contracts for the multi-national construction companies. Finally, we have to wait to see if proposed peace conference will take off at all, if so whether it will be torpedoed?

2-What compromise has been struck behind the door between the Russia and America, it is likely that the America and her allies would gain a degree of influence in Syria.

3- Since the last year, the America has imposed a wide variety of sanctions in retaliation to the Iran`s persistence to carrying on nuclear project, which has inflicted severe impact upon the Iran`s economy. Thus, Iran`s probable setback in Syria coupled with her economic doldrums at home and still threat of military use, have provided strong levers at the disposal of the America to squeeze more concessions from Iran.

4- Finally, even if war coming to an end in Syria, still killing war machine is roaring here and there, albeit in a varied intensities. But, we should not forget, that forming a part and parcel of capitalism, damnable phenomenon of war will not be vanished. Today, along with ongoing structural crisis of capitalism, militarism is awesomely expanding, and for the first time, since the end of the second WW2, Japan is contemplating the change of her constitution in order to expanding its military power, etc. Last but not least, the monstrous head of Fascism is sticking up across the Europe. What is to be done? There is no other alternative except to put an end to the capitalism, based on wage-slavery system.

Morad Azimi



1-Communist Manifesto, Introduction to English translation

2-Since ww2, recognising American hegemony, a special relation was struck between the US and Britain. As such, the latter played as junior a partner to the US invasion to Iraq.

3-They argued that similar to Roman empire, which brought about security to the vast lands of ancient world, the history has destined the American Imperialism to play the similar role to day. And the right wing historian, Neil Ferguson was pleaded with George W Bush do not shy away from declaring American Empire. However, they shamelessly brushed under the carpet the very chilling fact of the social structure of Roman Empire, which was based on brutal slavery system.

4- Similar to the manipulation of the Human Rights conception, American Imperialism & co choose a selective definition of terrorism, which depending on who you are and who your friends or foes are. For instance, America and Britain criminal attack to Iraq or Israeli state`s criminal practice against oppressed Palestinian people during the past six decades do not include within the definition of Terrorism.

5- Ironically, criminal Israel has stockpiled too many nuclear bombs, yet America and in broader term the so-called western democracy completely kept silence over it, disregarding many other countries, which have built up nuclear arsenals.      

6-America brought horrendous destruction to the Iraqi infrastructure with the aim of supplying fat contracts to the construction companies in the post-war Iraq. It is interesting to note that, US just spared destroying the oil ministry`s building!

7-Both in Iran and Iraq, the Shi.ite sect of superstition ideology of Islam constitutes the majority. Sadam Hussein, the late dictator of Iraq, was associated to the Sunnite minority superstition ideology, who oppressed Shi.ite sect and hanged their leader Mohammad sadder. Iranian Regime supported the Iraqi shi.ite dissidents morally and materially and provided them sanctuary in Iran.  

8- Tunisian Bu Ali, who set himself alight cited: he was unemployed and his vending cart`s licence had been confiscated by the police, both constituted the symbols of economic poverty and the lack of democratic rights . One more piece of information, at least 50% of the Egyptian working class earn a pittance of less than two dollars a day!

9- Democracy or will and rule of people is translated, on the one hand, the entire public administers are elected by the people and they are accountable to the people, on the other. However, in Capitalist Democracy, the will of people is truncated to just casting vote every few years. Hence the elected government is deemed legitimacy to stay in power until the next election, so far as government is granted the vote of confidence from the parliament, disregarding how extensive the working class and general public discontent would be . Further, separation of religion superstition ideology from the state is an    inalienable component part of the democracy, which capitalism has wilfully incorporated it fully or partially into the state machinery. No wander, why religion superstition was cynically supported to sabotage democratic aspirations of the Arab Spring. Finally, disregarding state is being based on religion superstition ideology, such as Iran where supreme leader defines his permanent authority emanating from the superstitious religion tenets. The contemporary constitutional hereditary monarchies run contrary to the principle of democracy.  

10- Both the China and Russia did not hesitate to exhibit their deep hatred towards the Arab Spring.

11- Historically, the Bourgeois Liberals fear far more from the revolution than of reaction, Karl Marx.

12-The wide use of Drone attacks by Obama administration marked a shift from the sole direct military force on the ground.

13-Same as in the Iraq, they wrought devastation to the Libyan infrastructure in order to provide lucrative reconstruction contracts to the multi-national companies.  

14-As it is well known, in avenging on ex-Soviet Union, which armed and supported Vietnamese National Liberation Army- was called Vietcong- at the Vietnam war, America created Al-Qaeda to fight the Russian soldiers in the Afghanistan. Al-Qaeda is holding the Vahabi version of superstition Ideology of Islam, that is the official religion of Saudi Arabia. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the holy Empire comprised of the Russia, Prussia and Austria- under the leadership of the Russia- played a central reactionary role in suppressing the European revolutions. Since the 1950s, the Saudi Arabia is playing the similar reactionary role as the holy empire. The holy Saudi Arabia has been promoting the Vahabi sect, the most obscurantist version of religion superstition, pumping money, printing poisonous books and building thousands of mosques across the world. However, the holy Saudi Arabia`s wicked practice is not just confined to the poisoning of minds, rather materially supporting al-Qaida, Salafi and Jihadist gangs, where ever they fit to their objectives.

15- In the Yalta Conference, which held in 1945, and attended by Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill, they struck a deal for dividing the post-ww2 world amongst their influence. As such, Iran became the share of west. Hence, emerging as an Independent from the influence of America the Islamic Republic of Iran, and claiming a major power in the Middle East has been tantamount to encroaching the America`s interest in the Middle East. The latter could afford to overlook France`s challenge during the time of invasion to Iraq. However, she is not prepared to climb down before Iran.

16- As a provision of deterrent against expansionist Israel, the Syrian government had developed and manufactured chemical weapons.

  1.         1.        17- Though ranking the second biggest economy of the world, and in tandem with the latter, is steadily upgrading her killing military machine, however, china has presently chosen the back seat relative to the Russia, who openly challenges American Imperialism.