If ex-soviet bloc was not socialist societies, then what is the characteristic of a socialist society?

In his discussion over class societies: Marx explained that, the exploitation of dominated class by a dominant class constituted as general law of class societies of Asiatic mode of production, Slavery, Feudalism and Capitalism, and the specific mode of exploitation differentiated one economic formation from another.

In slavery system, the slave holder bought a slave permanently and bound to provide subsistence to the slave, at all circumstances. But, in capitalism the capitalist would employ worker/wage-slave until the time which wage-slave produce surplus value. once, the process of surplus value production was disrupted, the capitalist would callously cast wage-slave on to the heap of unemployment.

Thus, in line with Marx`s above mentioned discovery, never wage-slavery system was abolished at Ex-Soviet union bloc; and, as the result, in order to maintain their subsistence, workers/wage-slaves had to sell their physical/ (1)mental labour power. However, workers/wage-slaves were not selling, at Ex-soviet bloc, their physical/mental labour power to a private capitalist, rather had done so to the state, as the embodiment of capital ownership. There was, with regard to the process of production, a further difference between Ex-soviet bloc and other countries that possessed private ownership.

With the outbreak of recession at western capitalist countries workers/wage-slaves would be sacked. But, in the constitution of Ex-Soviet Union bloc the job of worker/wage-slave had been secured. The latter advantage, in comparison to the working condition of workers/wage-slaves at western capitalist countries, was amongst a host of reforms that had been implemented in the wake of the victory of October Revolution; and held dual properties . On the one hand, worker/wage-slave job was legally guaranteed , on the other , their alienation from the process of production had been left intact.

There, in western capitalist countries, wielding undisputed authority over the labour/wage-slave, management would solely run the process of production. There is the management who would decide what physical/mental commodity and under which conditions to be produced. However, at Ex-soviet Union bloc, it was the central planning/Gaspalan, Which, on the basis of total information which was received from the mangers of entire factories would decide what and how many commodities needed to be produced. Therefore, within this hierarchal structure, workers/wage-slaves had no decision making role.

Receiving quite high salaries, perk, share and remuneration, management at western capitalist countries would impose higher rate of productivity or placing extra degree of intensity of exploitation against workers/wage-slaves.

At Ex-Soviet Union, implementing the quota of production allocated by the Central Planning/Gaspalan to the management, the latter would received bonus. Different sectors of factories with related Departments at Gaspalan shared a mutual interests. For securing bonus, the management would present figures, even by hook and by crook, to the associated department that he had successfully achieved his production quota. In the same token, it was imperative to the respective department at the Gaspalan, that the factories under its supervision did not have production shortfall. Thus, both management and department delicately looked after each other. If, the production of goods was based quantitatively, management would deliberately producing heavier than normal commodities, thicker paper was produced . If, the criteria for production of commodity based qualitatively, management knowingly would produce more expensive commodities- using gold in clothes(2).  

With the outbreak of recession in market capitalist countries, capitalists set off sacking workers/wage-slaves, cutting wages, closing or streamlining factories, increasing intensity of exploitation, so on and so forth, to overcoming crisis. At Ex-Soviet Union bloc, if a worker was accused of being indolent and tardy, however, management practically could not sack him, because both his constitutional right to work and union intervention backed him up. Therefore, in comparison to the market economy, imposing of higher rate of productivity or ratcheting up the intensity of exploitation management hands was tied behind his back. At Ex-Soviet Union the aspects of being repeatedly absent from work, unpunctuality and widespread alcoholism and the resultant harmful effect on the production process manifestly had been revealing worker/wage-slave alienation from production process.

The picture of a painter, product of an artisan and created soft-ware of an individual programmer belong to them. They would relish from what they produced. By contrast, the product of worker/wage-slave deserting him and appropriated by the capitalist. In Grundrisse, Marx explains: the dead labour or capital, the congelation of surplus value produced by the living worker/wage-slave, appears as a bloodsucking demon in front of the worker/wage-slave and sucking her/his blood.

In brief, apart from progresses in the field of military industries, due to the rivalry with west militarism, manufacturing products of Ex-Soviet Union lacked competitive edge with market economy products. Eventually, thanks to the worsening of the economic crisis at Ex-Soviet Union, it arrived on a crossroad of economic and social restructuring, as Gorbachev coined the process of Glasnost, and Perestroika. The latter meant, either Ex-Soviet Union had to go beyond capitalism, and aiming to build a society based on “ from each according to her/his ability and for each according to her/his needs ˮ ; or going back and embracing free market economy. Ex-Soviet Union picked up the second alternative.

Soviets/worker councils

According to the above discussion, except to Yugoslavia, there never existed such Workers council/ Soviets to administering the process of production at Ex-Soviet bloc. As to the Yugoslavia, here to workers council suffered from a radical defect. Because, Yugoslavia`s workers council were not organised on the basis of solidarity between factories, rather in competition with other factories. In other words, still free market economy ruled Yugoslavia`s factory councils; as the result it was doomed to fail.

Socialism/Communism/ Society of co-operative producers of social needs

All the above three terminologies are interchangeable and denoting to the same meaning. Depending on the particular circumstances, Marx and Engels used Socialism/Communism as a stateless society. Further, they had earlier discovered that, the emergence of the state as the result of the dissolution of primitive communes and accompanied division of society into antagonistic classes. Manifesto of Communism described the role of state as an ultimate tool at the hand of ruling class for the mental and physical oppression of the dominated classes; the reality we do witness today. The usage of communist state of Ex-Soviet Union, communist State of North Korea, Communist State of Cuba, etc, by social engineers of world capitalism is nothing but a cynical distortion of Communism. We envision at Socialism/Communism a society void of state, where social individuals in solidarity and co-operation will run the social process of production and distribution for the benefit of the whole society.

The construction of Communist/Socialist/society from each according her/his ability and for each according to her/his needs

Studying the development of the process of industrial revolution of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, Marx saw that the progress ,and innovation, of technology was an inseparable part of capitalist mode of production. He, also envisioned that the extent of progress of productive forces will arrive at a point where the full development of individual and society will be realised. That, in German Ideology, Marx wrote: in communist society, I will engage in one activity in the morning; and, if I wished going to fishing in the afternoon. The latter was not a sweet dream, rather, it has now been realised in more than a few countries. There are now economists in the USA, who argue that three hours a day and five days a week suffice to provide a life style pertinent to the expectation of 21th century.

Accordingly, from two pre-requisite conditions which are needed to establishing Socialism, the economic aspect is already in place in a fair number of countries. Then, the overthrowing of capitalism and embarking upon restructuring society on the fashion of Communism depended on the second pre-condition, i.e. conscious class organisation of the working classes. Hence, having had the both pre-requisites, following the overthrowing capitalist state and overcoming its probable resistance, marching towards communism will begin in earnest, and the timeline for arriving at Communism dependent on particular objective conditions .

Marx in the “ critique of the programme of Gotha ˮ describes that, with capturing political power by the working class, now the condition we possess does not feature a communist society which have been developed on its own foundations. Rather, by contrast, it is a society just emerging from the womb of capitalism, as such as to every aspects, i.e. economic, judicial, moral, and cultural, it bearing the whole marks of the old society. Hence, Marx calling the society at the point of emerging from the womb of capitalism as the first stage: “from each according to her/his ability and for each according to her/his work ˮ - here still bourgeois right rules, this is not socialism/Communism(3). For Marx, building a “ society from each according to her/his ability and for each according to her/ his needs ˮ required both highly developed productive forces and immensely advanced cultural evolution of working classes; to the extent that, full blooming of individual based on abounding development of society.

What happened at Ex-Soviet Union, was just one-sided five years economic development which planned and executed from above along with total exclusion of working class from decision making operated as ultimate goal, and, in consequence, the aspect of the blooming of workers, in parallel with the economic development was woefully neglected.

Triangle of Socialism

production for the need of society

(4)Social ownership of means of production                                         organisation of social production by workers

With reference to the above triangle, the process of building Socialism is depending to the simultaneous praxis of three components of the above triangle. This means that, in the lack of producing for the needs of social individuals, social ownership of production is meaningless. Also, without social ownership of means of production, the organisation of social production by workers is impossible. Finally, in the absence of solidarity in the organisation of social production by workers, production for the needs of society is   inaccessible                                                                                                                                                                            

Murad Azimi  

Notes

(1)- Mental labour. In discussing productive and unproductive labour at Grundrisse, Marx argues that, if a singer sings for her/his pleasure would produce unproductive labour. However, if she/he sings in restaurant will perform a productive labour. Service sector has been constituted a part of the process of capitalist. Since the beginning of 1980th service sector has growing so much so that, now in many capitalist country service industry overtaken manufacturing sector. Further, mental labour has now constituted a substantial part of the service industry. Here, worker/wage-slave is using mental labour in place of physical labour. However, both consuming energy.    

Finally, it had been a fashion   since 1980th to expunge   the term labour- sole resource of surplus-value/capital- and everybody turned into middle class- by the magic wand of           American new-cons. However, with the explosion of capitalism crisis of 2008, which manifested as financial crash, the magic wand started to lose its usefulness.

(2)Socialism Imperative, Professor Michael Lebowitz

(3)- Thanks to the backwardness of Russia, Lenin did not consider the point of society emerging from the womb of old one , rather, he designated a long period   of time to realizing “ for each according to her/his ability and for each according to her/his work ˮ as first phase/Socialism. Ibid

(4) Hugo Chavez and Professor Michael Lebovitz- Socialism Imperative

                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                     

     لنين، بنا به شرائط عقب افتاده ی روسيه، نه زمان خروج از رحم جامعه ی کهن، بلکه يک دوره ی طولانی را برای تحقق از هر کس به اندازه ی کارش و برهر کس به اندازه ی توانش را فاز اول و سپس مرحله ی از هر کس به اندازه ی توانش و برهر کس به اندازه ی نيازش را فاز دوم ناميد. همچنان که در بالا توضيح داده شد، با سرنگونی و شکست مقاومت سرمايه داری فرايند توامان توسعه و ترقی نيروهای مولده و بالندگی فرد و اجتماع آغاز می شود. پرفسور مايکل لبوويتز، ضرورت سوسياليسم، Socialism imperative

 

 

 

 

     Capitalism employs Religion Ideology both as soft-ware and hard- ware              weapons

None of the leaders of capitalist classes as openly and frankly exposed the true nature of religion ideology at the service of capitalism, as much as Napoleon, as he pronounced:

society is impossible without inequality, Inequality is intolerable without a code of morality, and a code of morality unacceptable without religion. Then , Marx aptly countering Napoleon's expression, he declared: religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, heart of the heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is opium of the people. End of quotations.

There are American Neo-cons who are lamenting that, why founding fathers of America had incorporated the article of separation of religion from state(1)? The answer is that, the intellectuals of enlightenment/rationality age, Voltaire, Diderot, etc- as the intellectual representatives of rising Bourgeoisie/ capitalist class-, to whom founding fathers of America associated with, had based their perception on reason or rational thinking(2). They radically criticised, refuted and cast aside Religion Ideology/ dogma. As regards the separation of religion from state, it means that, religion has to be considered as a personal and private matter and should be kept out of the whole public domain. As to the Western capitalist countries, they have in general not incorporated separation of religion from state on to constitutions(3). However, they hypocritically proud themselves of holding secular countries. And at the same time, and at varying degrees(4), these countries advancing Religion Ideology at schools curriculum, allowing schools being administered by church, giving media coverage to religion- at TV, Movie, publishing industry-, officially conducting religious ceremonies; financially supporting(5) religion institutions and etc,. The attitude of many of other countries toward intrusion of religion on the public life is much worse than western countries. It would suffice to make reference to Saudi Arabia and Iran, both having states based on Islamic Ideology(6) . The first implementing full weight of Sharia Law-Quran and Hadiths- through Wahabi sect, and Iran too performing Sharia law-Quran and Hadiths- pursuant to Shia Sect.

At the wake of WW2, allied powers, have now split into two hostile camps of East and West/So-called communist states and free world(7) and, as the result, the age of cold war was set off. The latter gave way to opening up a fresh period of employing Religion Ideology at the field of class struggles. Thus, president Truman of America employed god-fearing hype of west against godless Ex-Soviet Union, as an extra fodder for propaganda machine.

Ideology of religion as a soft-ware weapon at the service of Capitalism

To begin with, we have to remember the above two quotations, in respect of the ideology of religion. The first saw Religion Ideology as a stratagem for masking the existence of class division, class antagonism, the reality of capitalist society of exploiter and exploited and sanctifying inequality. The second quotation cogently expresses that similar to the momentary relief of opium on consumer, fugitive to the opium of religion too finds fleeting solace from capitalism`s suffering.

Thus, Christianity, Islam, etc, as a part of capitalism ideology are justifying the inhumane Capitalism`s wage-slavery system, and preaching working class masses submitting to their conditions of living and working. We see that no sooner than capitalist crisis breaks out, church dispatches its agents to working class communities, they go from one door to next and telling unemployed that Jesus Christ- son of god!- and his bible are here to save you. Of course, the hierarchy of church do not throw their support free of charge behind capitalism , and subsisting on the alms from their folk and also it dropping from the heaven, instead. Rather, capitalism well appreciate the service of Religion Ideology and handsomely rewarding them(8).

However, in those capitalist countries, where the Ideology of Islam constitutes the very state ideology, the entire society is being under the siege of religion Ideology and the canon of Providence controls the lives of human beings and the things that happen to them. Therefore, there is no social classes, everybody is equal slave before the god, (9); democracy, i.e. the running of whole affairs of society by women and men, and the principles of right to strike, right to expression, organising and gender equality(10), etc, are banned

and considered as ideas of infidels and godlessness. What a fabulous tool is the Ideology of Islam at the service of capitalist class to exploiting working classes.

Ideology of Religion as hard-ware weapon at the service of capitalism

In the aftermath of WW2, and the outbreak of cold war, US imperialism at the head of her allies, listed, in addition to, Ex-soviet Union, the Nationalist and Progressive movements, as her enemies. Because, those colonies which were struggling for independence from colonial powers(11) and others who had already gained their independence or were semi-independent; and were seeking independent policies, they met the wrath of US Imperialism and co. US Imperialism regarded their independent policies as tantamount to communism and ergo an act of hostility. In other words, you are either with us or against us. For instance, on 1953, Iranian Nationalist government of liberal Dr Mohammad Mosadegh was overthrown by a joint coup d'état of US and UK imperialists. Fidel Castro was originally a Nationalist leader of Cuba, and only when US Imperialism refused to recognise his independent stand, then Fidel Castro turned left toward Ex-Soviet Union- now infidel. The same was true of late Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt, again infidel.

It was on the backdrop of such imperialist & co war-mongering that, particularly Ideology of Islam was employed as an additional hard-ware weapon in the class struggle. And, the medieval, super-reactionary state of Saudi Arabia based on Sharia Law-Quran and Hadiths- represented by Wahabi sect, rose as the pillar of the above heinous project . Parallel to exporting of millions of barrels of oil a day, Saudi Arabia also export innumerable volumes of grisly Wahabi literature and many thousands of Wahabi Imams- preachers-; further, Saudi Arabia has built thousands mosques and still keeps building more mosques across the world. At these mosques Sharia law-Quran and Hadiths- have been taught ,and particularly, Youth are brainwashed.

Thus, Since aftermath the WW2, Saudi Arabia in cohort with Imperialist powers has continued using weapon of Sharia law , on the one hand, oppressing internal dissent, and fighting against progressive and left currents at Arab world and beyond, on the other. Afghanistan was a rather secular country and  making a slow rate of , but, steady progress. When Ex-Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, it furnished an exceptional inhumane opportunity to US Imperialism to plunge Afghanistan into the Vietnam of Ex-Soviet Union. Military training, weapons and associated facilities supplied by US, weapon of Sharia Law-Quran and Hadiths- of Vahabi sect and money from Saudi Arabia; further Wahabi fighters were recruited from local, Saudi Arabia ,etc. As the result, Al-Qaida, twin creature of US and Saudi Arabia was born. The Ex-Soviet Union Imperialism was defeated ,on 1988, and left Afghanistan. Now for US Imperialism & co mission was accomplished! They callously left a ruined and chaotic Afghanistan to a bunch of Criminal war lords from Pashto, Tajik, Uzbek, etc, ethnicities, who set off savagely tearing off each other and inflicted more devastation and rolling Afghanistan back to dark ages. How, charitable were Imperialists & co. A while later, Pakistani(12,13) brainwashed Wahabi Taliban at Pakistani Madrasas, seminary schools, that paid for by Saudi Arabia, and blessed by Imperialists, crossed the border and set up, on 1996, a brutal Wahabi state in Kabul. In brief, Taleban Emirate hanged cassettes from posts, females were completely shut out of public domain, etc. Though, Imperialist & co created a hell of Afghanistan, they delivered Al Qaida Frankishtine yet.

American New cons redrawing the map of Middle East

About the juncture to Junior George Bush becomes the president of USA, on 2000, a revised map of Middle East, was called ˋNew middle Eastˊ made public for a fleeting time. It revealed that, US, as a single super power imperialist, was supposedly entitled to redraw for her interests the map of Oil reach and geopolitically important region of Middle East. And, the dubious attacks, by al-Qaida of Ben Laden, on twin towers and the building of Pentagon furnished an excuse for whipping up bizarre and fanatical patriotic and chauvinistic propaganda. Then, on 2001, US invaded Afghanistan and swiftly removed Taliban from power. Two years later, on 2003, accusing Sadam Hussein for holding so-called mass destruction weapons and also his alleged connection with Osama Bin Laden, in alliance with UK, as her junior ally, US invaded Iraq and within the duration of a month the regime was buckled. Now, the land of Iraq became a fertile soil for mush-rooming of Vahabism. Now, Iran squeezed between the two of US conquered countries on its east and west borders, was perilously looked as the next target. However, the ferocious resistance of Iraqi nationalist movement and Al-Qaida`s involvement bugged US & UK imperialists in Iraq. Further, exploiting US negligence in Afghanistan, Taliban crept out of their hiding and were regrouped and forced US & allied once more coming back to Afghanistan- Vahabism swarmed again . Still, further, with the rise of Arab spring, to make up for Afghanistan and Iraq debacles, Imperialist powers of US, UK, France and their allies Saudi Arabia and Qatar collaborated to topple Moamar Kaddafi of Libya. However, to their detriment Libya involvement did not fare better- Vahabism burgeoned here too. No sooner than, Libya fiasco was unfolded , again Imperialist powers & co, this time, hell bent to Mutilate Syria, and made of it something ghostly resembling to Japanese devastated cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki(14). They trained, armed,financed, opened Turkey`s border to Syria, etc. and created monster ISIS and alike- and Vahabism flourished both in Syria and Iraq. Similar to Al-Qaida, Isis is not a stupid stooge of Imperialist powers & co, rather, they have now developed their own dynamism.

Syria government`s enemies are pursuing diverse objectives. Semi-dictatorR.T . Erdogan, president of Turkey, wants to carve up a part of Syria and more importantly annihilate Rojava, self-management democracy o Syrian Kurds and self-management movement of Kurds of Turkey. Israel, Saudi Arabia and Qatar have been aiming at removing Assad from power, and thereby slashing Iran`s influence in Syria, Lebanon and weakening her position in Iraq, on the one; and at least downsizing Russian Imperialism dominance in Syria, on the orher.

The surfacing of ISIS and capturing Mosul on 31 May 2015, gave rise to  opportunity to US military once more coming back to Iraq, expanding her military basis in Iraq and particularly, exipanding bases in the Iraqi Kurdistan of client  regime of Masod Barzani. Whilst, in line with her allies, US pursued violent overthrowing of Syria regime, it was intriguing to see that upon emerging   of savage ISIS, Obama said, the latter`s issue requires to be resolved through political channel. And, at another occasion telling it needed to contain ISIS! However, contrary to US vacilliating policies towards Syria, the Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Qatar displayed cosistent policy. 

 

Summing up:

Since the aftermath of WW2, and particularly from 1960s, US imperialism and her allies employed religion Ideology, both as soft-ware and hard-ware weapons at the service of class struggle and waging aggressive wars. Imperialist powers reprehensibly created,   assisted and supported states based on oppressive Religion Ideologies.

1- As a soft-ware weapon, and resembling to opium, ideology of religion masks class society, the very division of society into classes of exploiter and exploited; at varying degrees it denies civil society, democracy and democratic rights, and, as the result, it preaches to make condition of suffering under Capitalist system of exploitation bearable to masses of workers.

2- As a hard-ware, we see that, how Ideology of Vahabism- Sharia Law- is being used as a sickening weapon for aggression, conquest, regime change. It hysterically hostile to democratic values: gender equality, right to strike, organise, right to expression of opinion, in spoken and written, etc. The weapon of Wahabism created oppressive and insecure environments- totally anti- civil society- and sweeping off the social stage- wherever put its dreadful hands- the class struggle, democratic values, and the demands and ideals of working classes. How remarkable Sharia Law, based on Quran and Hadiths, of Wahabism is serving wage-slavery system of capitalism. In the mean time, we have to point out that, Sharia Law of Shia  sect based on -Quran and Hadith- is not less culprit than its twin brother, Wahabism. Since its coming to power the Shia Sharia law-Quran and Hadith- in Iran, it bas ceaselessly been challenged by secular opposition; and it has survived by employing the same brute force as was used its founder- Shah Ismail.

2-1 Using weapon of Wahabism, imperialism wreaked havoc to huge swathes of infrastructure, destroying colossal quantities of constant capital, particularly in middle east, and generating fantastic opportunity for reconstruction industry of world capitalism.

2-2, The current Imperialist wars that spurred by Sharia Law- Quran and Hadith- conditioned fabulous chance for military industrial complexes, selling weapons and making profits, (e.g. they awash Saudi Arabia with weapons, who ruthlessly killing Yemani people and humanist imperialist powers and co are watching it with self-satisfaction) at the cost of apocalyptic destruction, killing hundreds of thousands , further maiming, injuring many more adult and children; forcing some ten millions to fleeing their place of abodes and seeking refuge at unwelcoming and not less racist capitalist west, who are the   principle culprit of the whole current nasty scenarios.

Notes

I- Since Ronald Reagan stepped into the white House on 1981, Christian religion, particularly evangelical church,   was so madly evangelised on TV shows, that, there are now nearly 50% of Americans who believe according to the old testament, Torah, god created world in 6 days, and took rest on the seventh day . One Christian evangelist judge placed a plinth- engraved on it, the ten commandments of Muses- in front of the high court!

2- It is interesting to note that rational thinking, based on reason, was developed on ninth century at the empire built on Islamic Ideology.

3- Britain is the only country, which does not have constitution, so her hands are free, and whilst, practically pretending being a secular country, the state widely promoting religion ideology and several thousand schools are administered by the church of England.  

4- There are Christian Democratic and Christian social Democratic Parties in Germany and Christian Democratic Party in Italy, etc. These parties incorporated Religion Ideology into party constitution, needless to say, they are right wing parties.

5- For instance, church Commissioners is a body managing properties and assets of the Church of England.

6- Ideology of Islam

Islam expressly forbids a clergy. All believers are same before Allah. No, hierarchy is permitted in the mosque, and, technically, any Muslim can be invited to address the faithful after Friday prayers. How Islam would have developed if it had been compelled to spend the first hundred years in the wilderness is an interesting abstraction, but it never faced with this choice. Instead its leaders rapidly found themselves at the head of large empires, with the result that a great deal of improvisation had to take place. The authorised version of the Quran was published many years after the death of Muhammad, its accuracy guaranteed by the third caliph Uthman, and it was accepted as the authentic version, though modern ̔ infidel   ̓   scholars such as Patricia Crone have found ̔no hard evidence for the existence of the Quran in any form before the last decade of the seventh century(Muhammad died at 632)... ̓

Regardless of the date, Quranic prescriptions, while quite detailed on certain subjects , did not suffice to provide a complete code of social and political conduct needed to assert Islamic hegemony in the conquered lands. And so hadith ( tradition) came into existence, consisting of what the Prophet or his Companions or his wife( favourite Aisha, from me) had said at a particular time and date to K or Y, who had then passed it on to Q or Z, who had informed author, who in turn wrote down the   ̔ Hadith or tradition   ̓. Christianity had undergone a similar experience, but restricted it to four gospels, making sure that the contradictory versions of performed miracles or other episodes were either edited out or reduced to a bare minimum.

The need to create traditions/ hadiths resulted in the birth of a new craft , which provided employment to hundreds of scholars and scribes throughout the seventh and eighth centuries, even though most of them were intellectually ill-equipped for the purpose. It led to ferocious arguments regarding the authenticity of particular traditions-hadiths. The war of traditions still goes on, raising the basic question whether any of them are authentic. Specialists have been debating this for over a thousand years, but no consensus is ever reached , nor is one possible, though over the centuries Islamic scholars have reduced the number of acceptable traditions and named the most reliable authors.

The point, however, is not their authenticity but the ideological role they played in Islamic societies. Sunni traditions/ hadiths challenge the  Shia ̔heresy ̓. The Shia developed their own traditions/ hadiths, some of which are extremely offensive regarding Aisha and Umayyads. The aim was to discredit Aisha, etc. The Ali`s followers alleged that the weak-knead Caliph Uthman, who organised the first authorised version of the Quran, removed whole verses from it because they favoured his factional rivals, the supporters of Ali. One of the traditions attributed to Aisha claims that in its oral phase the Quran, in a moving homage to the Old Testament- Torah- recommended ̔ stoning till to death ̓ as the price for adultery, whereas Uthman`s published version suggests that a good flogging is punishment enough.

It would have been surprising, if this highly-charged atmosphere of actual and intellectual civil wars- Hadith, Tradition, versus counter- Hadith, Tradition, differing schools of interpretation, disputes on the authenticity of the Quran itself- had failed yield a fine harvest of sceptics and heretics. These emerged in due course. Many poets, philosophers and heretics expanded the frontiers of debate and dissent in the search for knowledge and thus enriched Islamic civilisations.

The Andalusian (*)philosophers usually debated within the confines of Islam, though the twelfth-century Cordoban Ibn Rushd- Latin known as Averroes (1126-98) occasionally crossed the permitted frontiers. When, the enlightened Sultan Abu Yusuf questioned him about the nature of the sky , the astronomer-philosopher did not initially offer a reply, he did not trust him. The Sultan persisted: Is it a substance which has existed from all eternity or did it have a beginning? Only when the ruler indicated his awareness of the works of ancient philosophers, did Ibn Rushd trust him and responded by explaining why rationalist methods were superior to religious dogma. His magnum opus work Commentaries attracted the attention of Christian and Jewish theologians. Most of Ibn Rushd work was lost or destroyed. What survived, did so in Latin, was studied a great deal during the Renaissance. Two centuries earlier, a Persian scholar, Ibn Sina (980-1037, born in Bukhara), had laid the basis for a study of logic, science, philosophy, politics and medicine.

It was his philosophical ideas contained in other works, and transmitted through fragments, which engaged metaphysic questions of substance and being, existence and essence. In subsequent centuries these were to reach Western Europe, where   ̔ Avicenna ̓ was hotly debated. Ibn Sina and Ibn Rushed chafed at the restrictions of religious orthodoxy, etc.

The ninth century Baghdad heretic Ibn Rawandi wrote several books that questioned the basic principle of the Big Three- (Judaism, Christian, Islam, from me): the monotheistic religions and their favoured god-in the-sky. In this he went far beyond the Mu ̓tazilite sect to which he had once belonged. The Mu ̓tazilites believed that it was possible to combine rationalism and belief in one god. Some of them rejected the Revelation and insisted that the Quran was a created and not a revealed book. Others strongly criticised the quality of its composition, its lack of eloquence and the ̔impurity ̓ of its language. They insisted that Reason alone dictated obligation to God. Their more extreme followers denounced the Prophet for impiety and having too many wives.           

They utilised rational arguments to explain the world, combining fragments of Greek philosophy with speculation based on their own studies and observation. The Quran was seen as extraneous to this project. Mu ̔tazilite thinkers developed theories to explain the physical world: bodies were conceptualised as agglomerations of atoms; a distinction was drawn between substance and accident; all phenomena could be explained through the inherence of atoms that constituted bodies. They speculated endlessly to try and understand location and movement in the universe. Was the Earth immobile? If so, why? What was the nature of fire? Was there a void in the heart of the universe?

Remarkably, in the first half of the ninth century this sect acquired state power for thirty years. Three successive caliphs from al-Mamun to al-mu tasim and al-wathiq forced state officials( as rational believer Caliphs, should not have had forced them ), theologians and Kadis-( judges, from me)- to accept that the Quran was composed by human and was not a revealed text.

Then, Mu tazilites subjected to persecution and scurried away to other parts of the Islamic world, etc.

In the enriched intellectual atmosphere of the mid-ninth century the emergence of a critical voice like Ibn Rawandi`s is unsurprising. His deliberation on the nature of prophets, prophecy and miracles, including Muhammad, were scathing. He argued that religious dogmas were always inferior to reason, because it was only through reason that one could attain integrity and moral stature . The ferocity of his assault first surprised, then united Islamic and Jewish theologians against him, who denounced him mercilessly. Ibn Rawandi responded by demonstrating that miracles were simply the hocus-pocus of magicians. Far from exempting his own religion from these strictures, he included the Revelation that produced the Quran as patently fake. For him the Quran was    neither revealed nor an original piece of work. Far from being a literary masterpiece, it was repetitive and unconvincing. He had started as Believer, but ended up as an atheist. His path must have been a hard and lonely one. None of his original works survives. What is known of him and his writings is almost exclusively through the texts of Muslim and Jewish critics who devoted tomes to refuting his heresies, etc. Abbreviated version of Chapter 6, The joy of heresy, The Clashes of Fundamentalisms, Tariq Ali

* Tareq ibn Ziyad, a Muslim Moor general conquered Part of Spain, they called it Andalusia, its capital Cordoba, on 711ac.

The roots of Wahabism

At the time of Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahab was born on 1703, The Arabian Peninsula`s economy was mainly derived from petty local trade, revenue from pilgrims to Mecca and Medina and tribes` organised rackets. This was the context in which, he heralded a new revivalist sect. His theologian father defended an ultra-orthodox eighth century interpretation of Muslim law. Tired of tending date palms and grazing cattle, his young son began to preach locally for a return to the ̔pure beliefs̓ of olden times. He opposed the worship of Prophet Muhammad, Condemned Muslims who prayed at the shrines of holy men, criticised the custom of marking graves, stressed the ̔unity of one god ̓, and denounced all non-Sunni and even some Sunni groups( including the Caliph in Istanbul, capital of Uthman empire) as heretics and hypocrite. All this provided a politico-religious justification for an ultra-sectarian Jihad against other Muslims, specially the Shia ̔heretics ̓ and including the Ottoman empire. These views were hardly original. Puritanism had always had its defenders. Its social prescriptions, insistence on the stoning to death of adulterers , the amputation of thieves and public execution of criminals- that created real problem in 1740. Religious leaders in the region objected strongly when he began to practice what he preached. Annoyed by the nonsense, the emir of the town of Uyayna asked him to leave the city. Four years later, In 1744 Ibn Wahab arrived in Deraiya, another small town. The bandit-emir, Muhammad Ibn Saud- ancestor of contemporary Saudi Arabia kings- received him. He understood at once that Ibn Wahab`s teachings might further his military ambition . Ibn Wahab provided theological justification for almost everything Ibn Saud wanted to achieve: a permanent jihad that involved looting other Muslim settlements and towns, and , ultimately, asserting his own rule over neighbouring tribes in an attempt to unite the Peninsula. The emir and Ibn Wahab accorded a binding agreement. To cement binging agreement, Ibn Wahab`s daughter became one of Emir`s wives. He demanded a blanket pledge: under no circumstances should Ibn Wahab ever offer his spiritual allegiance and services to any other emir. Incredibly for a man who defended universality of Islam consented to abide by this restriction. The second demand of emir was downright cynical. However bad it might appear, the preacher must never thwart his ruler from exacting necessary tributes from his subjects!   On this point too, Muhammad Ibn Wahab accommodated to his new patron, reassuring him that soon these tributes would be unnecessary; since Allah promises more material benefits in the shape of ghanima [loot] from unbelievers( Ibn Wahab father and brother both rejected the new dogma). His brother Suleiman pointed out that early leaders of Islam had never denounced other Muslims as purveyor of polytheism and unbelief).

By 1792, the Saudi-Wahabi forces subjugated the cities of Riyadth, Khraj and Qasim, etc. At last, on the request of Ottoman Sultan & Caliph, Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali`s soldiers defeated Wahabis. A century later, Ibn Saud successors allied with British empire, in WW1, to wage Jihad against the   ̔hypocritical ̓ Muslims of the Caliphate- Ottoman empire- and once again established themselves as a regional power. Another and even more powerful imperial state, would later entrust Abdul Aziz ibn Saud with the entire peninsula. Wahabism in its purest form - an unalloyed mixture of confessional rigidity and political opportunism- had become an instrument of the Infidel(imperialism, from me).

* An abridged version of Chapter 9, The Clash of Fundamentalisms, Tariq Ali

Shi'ism

Shī'a Islam, also known as Shi'ite Islam or Shi'ism, is the second largest branch of Islam after Sunni Islam. Shias adhere to the teachings of Muhammad and the religious guidance of his family (who are referred to as the Ahl al-Bayt) or his descendants known as Shia Imams. Shia Islam has divided into many branches. Shia twelver constitutes official religion ideology of the Capitalist State of Iran. Prior to Ismail founding Safavid dynasty on 1501 ac; majority of people who lived on a land, since dictator Reza shah was called Iran, were Sunni believers. Using brute force, Shah Ismail converted his subjects to twelver Shiaism. It is well documented that, to convert population of Tabriz to twelver Shiaism , about 25000 people were ruthlessly massacred, by his order.    

When the dictatorial regime of Shah failed to tackle Capitalism crisis tht broke out, on 1974, it precipitated on to Politico-Economic crisis. It was through wielding the barbaric dictums of Sharia Law- Quran and Hadiths-, that Khomeini`s current was able to crush in the name of Islamic revolution, Iranian popular and radical left Revolution. They brutally began stoning to death, chopping hands, whipping and torturing of the victims. They shamelessly justified torturing of regimes` opponents. And, Liberal Guardian gleefully reported that: at long last, the antitheses of communism was discovered, and it had not overstated. However, if, today Sharia Law- Quran and Hadiths- of Iran is not as harsh as SaudiArabia`s Wahabi sharia law- Quran and Hadiths-, the secret lies at the different conditions of evolving two societies. In the middle of 19th century, parallel with the emerging of liberal thinking , the ̔Babi ̓ social movement,1844-1852, led by ̔Mohammad Shirazi̓ intended to bring about reformism in Shia, he was killed and his followers were persecuted. Then, under the influence of England, a dominant power in Iran, it was transformed from being a radical social movement into ̔Baha'i ̓̓ sect, rejecting political practice. Then, on 1906, Iran was amongst one of two countries in Asia, which accomplished bourgeois/ Constitutional Revolution. Then, on 1908, Social Democratic Party of Iran was founded, etc.   By contrast, Saudi kingdom was established ,on 1932, in a primitive tribal and antecedent to capitalist society, on the basis of Wahabism.

There are a rainbow of apologists, who are hypocritically arguing that, Saudi Arabia's Wahabi/ Salafi sharia law-Quran and Hadiths- and Shia law- Quran and Hadiths- of Iran do not represent true tolerant Islam. These, So-called strands of liberals in west as well as locals, etc, do not have enough gut to confess that:

A- Thanks to the contemporary influence of civil societies and Bourgeois democracy they have shifted views in one way or another from the true Sharia Law- Quran and Hadiths- of Mohammad.

B- The so-called tolerant Islam, Sharia Law- Quran and Hadith- was scathingly criticised by the heroic rational thinkers, particularly on ninth century, so often than not, they were persecuted by tolerant Islam of Sharia Law- Quran and hadith.

7-Firsly, communism is derived from Commune or community. The first term is still used in Sweden, France, etc, which is equivalent to the term of council- a geographical division in a city. The second is employed for council, and also in a broader terms such as world community. Further, at the time of emerging burgers, early nascent of today capitalist classes, and the organisation they constructed at the fringe of and independent of Feudal Aristocratic authority was called commune by French Burgers. Then, as from the first half of nineteenth century the maladies of new social capitalist production was criticised, its alternative society was named as communism/ society of communes- without a state standing above the society. Secondly, in brief, the ex-soviet union and its satellites were state capitalists were a authoritarian states above working classes - never wage-slavery system was abolished in these countries- and they were not Societies of Associated Co-operatives, that were based on: from each according to her/his ability and for each according to her/his needs. Thirdly, as it was discussed above the intellectuals of enlightenment age, intellectual representatives of ascending progressive bourgeoisie/capitalist class, such as Voltaire, Diderot, etc, criticised and refuted Ideology of Religion and fully dispensed of it. Then, Marx through developing ̏Materialist Conception of History ̋, he expounded that : since the Homo-sapiens established  the first primitive societies, before they emerging as philosopher, politician, poet, or there arise religion, kingdom, etc; they had to engage both to producing their means of subsistence to survive and reproducing their generation.  Therefore, human beings created gods, not the reverse.

So, what distinguishes the central characteristic of the society of commune or communism is the ̏ Society of Co-operative Associations ̋; and believing or unbelieving of Religion Ideology is a secondary matter. It is interesting to mention that, there are too many atheists, particularly in the west, but they are not adherents of communism or society of communes. Fourthly, during the cold war, it was a Goebbilsian lie by capitalist representatives portrayed western countries as free countries!

8-AS class struggle intensified in South Africa on 1980s, Church of England took out its shares held at South African companies.

9- In Quran and Arabic Language the words ̏Abd and Abdullah ̋ and their equivalents In Persian language ̏Bandeh and Bandeh Khoda ̋ both mean as slave and slave of god and not creature and ̏creature of god ̋. In Persian language the word ̏Bandeh and Bandeh Khoda ̋- the slave and slave of god-ˊ have been so entrenched in people`s tradition that they usually call respectively themselves ̏Bandeh ̋ and addressee ̏Bandeh Khoda ̋.

10- Both ideologies of Christianity and Islam are originated from the barbaric Ideology of Judaism. Pursuant to the latter, Female is appallingly degraded and she holds one half of man`s intelligence; when an observant Jew is going to make love with her wife, he spreads a cloth, having a hole on it, and cares his body should not touch hers. Thus, female degradation and her inferiority in Islam, though absolutely repugnant, are inherited from barbaric Judaism, as eye for eye, stoning to death, chopping hands, etc. Finally, it is on the basis of Torah, old testament, that the Apartheid and criminal state of Israel has occupied west Bank and oppressing Palestinian people.

11- On 1960, Patrick Lumumba, the great Nationalist of Congo, Ex-colony of Belgium , was labelled as ashamedly Communist Agent by the US Imperialism and plotted an unsuccessful coup d'état against him. However, Patrick Lumumba was later captured, killed and dissolved his  dead body in a container of acid. Why? Because, he wanted to pursue independent policy and was bold enough to refuse serving as a stooge of American Imperialism & co.

12-on 5 July 1977, General Zia ul Haq had overthrown Secular Government of Zulfekar Ali Bhutto and established Sharia Law, based on ̏Quran and Hadiths ̋. As the result, Saudi Arabia pumped money and sent huge quantities of Wahabi literature to Pakistan. Too many mosques/Madrasas were built in Pakistan and children and youngsters started as Taleb, seminary student, to learn Wahabism and later on become Taleban of Pakistan and Afghanistan.

13- On 1979, Khomeini came to power and set up Sharia Law, etc.

14- Of course, Syrian regime was not faultless. However, as soon as, it was revealed that Wahabi currents are going to exploit the situation, US, UK and France should have been alarmed, if they were humanist, and seeking a peaceful democratic solution. They did not. And, On 2012, respectively, Kofi Anan- previous general Secretary of UN, and then Lakhtar Ebrahimi- representative of UN- peace missions were torpedoed. And, Imperialist powers and & co have continued cynically accusing Assad regime of destroying the country, etc.

 

Structural crisis of capitalism(2)

It was discussed in the part one, that capitalism crisis of 2008, which manifested as a financial crisis was not a repetition of the earlier periods of boom and bust. Rather, It was emerged as the structural crisis and thenceforth world capitalism entered into an era that encountering continuous difficulty to produce surplus value- the fundamental characteristic of capitalism. Never before in the history of capitalism, the fictitious capital dominated the process of capitalist production as it has , at the expense of manufacturing capital, effected since 1980s. I will discuss it below. Though, the impact of capitalism crisis of 2008 on china was almost overlooked, in fact, it had brought bearing upon the China`s capitalism too. As the China`s export to the crisis-ridden countries dramatically dropped, so  to stave off the effect of crisis, by way of adopting Keynes Doctrine china pumped several trillions of dollars to the provincial governors for developing various infrastructural projects. They built many new cities- some, each within a fortnight, the amount of cement was used on the construction of infrastructural projects, between 2011 and 2013, was equivalent to 6, 615 million tons, against 4,405 million tons, that US had used in the span of one hundred years, from 1900 to 1999. Thus, china   managed to harnessing the shock of massive factory closures, which threatened to plunge tens of millions of workers to the abyss of unemployment.  Apparently, the policy worked and china maintained its 10% GDP, whilst major economies, including US, Japan and a host of European economies had been submerged into the quick mire of crisis(1). The economy of Brics countries of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa- the latter was later welcomed into the club-, and particularly china, were hailed as the engine of the world economy which cushioned the severity of 2008 crisis. But, the lot of Brics countries have now been dramatically changed, and each country is struggling in various degrees against the effects of capitalism crisis.

China`s government intervention, i.e. its application of Keynesian nostrum, did impart  only ephemeral benefit, and then the GDP set to slide down. Because, the capital was spent to developing infrastructure projects failed to stimulate manufacturing sector at the same time. In other words, If Keynesian Doctrine was going to work for a durable time, it requited in addition to generating job opportunity, had to work as medium to propel manufacturing sector to produce surplus value. But, It did not. Neither domestic market expanded nor export did pick up, and leaving aside the expansion of transportation system , etc, a big portion of the newly built cities were left empty ghost cities; and at the same time the project slammed $ 3trillion dollars debts on the lap of the central government(2). To keep up appearances, The National People`s Congress of China ,on 2013, contrived a novel economic terminology of   ̏New norm ̋ as the GDP climbed down from 10% to 7.4%. And, to guarantee sustaining 7.4% rate of growth or maintaining the ‘New norm’, the fulcrum of the congress was the launching of economic reforms, or rationalisation of economy. As such, the congress adopted a raft of resolutions, including  implementing  unremitting   measures to reduce the rate of pollution, restructuring loss making factories and speeding up the process of privatisation of state-owned factories, expanding service industry, relaxing financial sector regulations, moving from the intensive labour based manufacturing sector towards the  less intesive labour and more value added commodities, through introducing more high Tec technology, so on and so forth.

However, The execution of the intended reforms, in the middle of world crisis and declining demands for commodities, not to mention the timeline of carrying out the reforms , seemed a mammoth task. Taking the china`s painful problem of pollution- though thousands of notoriously pollution making factories were closed down-, however as recent as ,on 03/09/2015, two years after the convening of the National People`s congress, on the 70 anniversary of the China`s victory over Japan, thanks to taking an extraordinary measures the government managed to conduct a military parading on a clear skies of the Peking. Considering that the state owns a big part of both the manufacturing and financial sectors, which are run by the party oligarchy, their restructuring do not omen as if an easygoing challenge. Further, shifting from the producing cheap commodities aimed at exporting to foreign countries and introducing high Tec industries ,instead, is bound to training well skilled workforce which would earning better purchasing power in order to boosting domestic market, or elevating consumerism, seems a more innocent dreams than to make it a reality in the current conjuncture. Because, on the one hand, raising the technology will go with it the reduction of the workforce and thereby increasing the rate of unemployment. On the other hand, china`s economy has in general been geared on cheap labour, it meant that it  had built to great extent at unskilled and low-skilled labours. In brief, china`s economy has been dominated on the copying culture of foreign designs rather than based on its own inventing drive(3). Asregards the relaxation of the financial regulations, the story was quite different. The loosening of the regulations of the financial sector created a fantastic speculation, gambling, opportunity at stock market, so much so that, despite the GDP slipped down to 7.%, by contrast, at 1 January 2015 the composite stock markets of the Shanghai and Shenzhen were respectively jumped up to 60% and 120%. Then, Black Monday of 24/08/2015 descended and china`s bubble burst and the whole world markets plunged into turmoil. China's government intervened and government injected 0.5 $ trillion into the stock markets to nullify the effect of bubble burst, but to no avail.

China accounts for the second highest GDP in the world and simultaneously ranks the world`s prime manufacturing centre, it has overtaken US. Thus, both the growth of the capital and the latters` depression would foster international ramifications, e.g. the economic ramification of the reduction of the iron ore import from Australia, damaged the economy of the latter, etc. China`s lightening development, in the course of past three decades, has been built on the brutal exploitation of the working class(4), reminiscent to the prevailing conditions of the working class of nineteenth century of Victorian UK. When the china embarked on its naked capitalist mode of production, at the beginning of 1980s, China`s organic composition of capital was quite low, and as the result, it furnished the basis for a high rates of growth. Now, following three decades of relentless growth the organic composition of capital has grown on to such a high degree that, there is no escape to china from approaching to the precipice of capitalism crisis(5).Marx gives an enlightening example, i.e., the growth of capital from 100 units to 200 units does not meet any problem. However, china`s three decades of ruthless expansion/capital accummulation has now produced a GDP of equivalent to 7$ trillion, can it rap up GDP to 14$ trillion- even supposing that the world capitalism is not passing through crisis? And, there are, indeed, capitalist economists, who are shutting their eyes to Marx`s Critique of Political Economy of Capitalism and believing that china not only can get there,but will reach to US per capita in the course of  certain decades.    According to the IMF`s recent report, china will fail to meet its target of 7% GDP growth, this year. Ironically, some economists even argue that china`s actual growth is now corresponding to less than 5% GDP(6).

China`s black Monday , 24/8/2015, was the first phase of the storm of the bubble burst, and there comes in the near future a further and much devastating power of bubble burst.

Fictitious Capital

Marx discussed on the capital V3 that, at the initial stage of the emergence of credit, banking or financial system, it played to accelerate the realisation of the process of capital accumulation. In doing so, a portion of  the surplus value of manufacturing capitalist, in the form of income, accrued to the financial sector. That meant that, all in all, the nascent credit system or financial sector was dependent on the fortune of the manufacturing capitalist- the pillar of capitalism process of production. However, as the capital of the financial sector augmented, in the pursuit of higher rate of income, the latter expanded its fields of operation beyond the domain of commodity production(7), in the form of speculation, gambling, practice. Marx coined the latter as the fictitious capital, in contrast to the real capital, material production, i.e., commodity production. Though, the nature of fictitious capital, as defined by the Marx, had not been evolved since then, however, the scope of operation and particularly the magnitude of fictitious capital is now mind boggling. Fictitious capital now seeks to make big killings, A) it gambles, speculate, on stock markets, thanks to the flush of QE- quantitative easing, money printed by the state-, on the one hand, and the near to zero interest rate of the central bank, on the other. B) speculating on bonds, at pricing of  various commodities. C) a segment of fictitious capital, as hot money, short term loans, travelling around the globe, targeting emerging economies. D) It aims at the development of big construction projects, housing, malls, huge leisure projects, etc. However, it does not desire to invest at the manufacturing sector, because the latter does not produce satisfactory income, if at all. Thus, a portion of fictitious capital, over $ 20 trillion are hoarded in the safe havens. Marx grasped the parasitic nature of the fictitious capitalism and remarked that the manufacturing sector should bring the fictitious capital under its control. Though Marx`s diagnosis has not been realised, yet. However, it merits to mention that in the wake of financial crash of 2008(8), at long last, some capitalist economists came to sense and admitting that the way out of crisis is bound to advancing at real economy- commodity production.

The hegemony of parasitically fictitious capitals can afford dictating their disastrous policies to the capitalist states and using them as cash cow in their service of speculation and gambling, which has been glaringly manifested since the outbreak of capitalism crisis of 2008. Further, today, the extent of parasitically financial sector`s supremacy has developed so massive that it set watershed to the operation of capitalism. Finally, fictitious capital feeds on the states` gargantuan debts, now accounts to $ 300 trillion.

Capitalism`s structural crisis

When one talks of structural crisis of capitalism, it is meant that the world capitalism no more possessing any credible alternative to the prevailing crisis. Leaving aside Exploiting probable apocalyptic Armageddon of nuclear war(9) and wholesale fascism, capitalism lacks any credible alternative to tackling the prevalent crisis. Up until the end of 1979, capitalism employed alternately Laissez-faire, liberal economy, and mixed, partial state intervention, to steer through capital crisis. Then, the much trumpeted new-liberalism as the only credible political economy for organising social production, in the course of past three decades has ended at impasse. Thus, since the outbreak of the capitalism crisis on 2008, too many economists, of course not claiming as followers of Marx, have virulently criticised New-Liberalism. Suffice, to name Thomas Piketty, an economist within the mainstream capitalist economists, rather than without it, has comprehensively criticised the political economy of capitalism. As such, what capitalist countries are doing now is just   displacing manifestations of crisis from one place to another. There is relentless currency wars- between main centres of capitalism-; for instance, Japan devalues Yen to boost its export, it hits European Union, US, China and etc. Governments print money and lower interest rates to almost 0.0%, it benefits parasitically financial sector, and at the same time manufacturing sector is starving from capital. It is claimed that, US is out of wood and enjoying a real economy growth of 2.5 to 2.7 %, and paradoxically the economy is going a through deflationary course; because, inflation is almost 0.0%. Janet Yale, the head of Federal Reserve, US Central Bank, had indicated she will raise the interest rate on September 2014, to boost real economy(10). However, she put it off to June 2015, and again postponed it. What is happening? The reality is that, zero% interest favours Wall Street, Stock Exchange sharks, and the US Federal Reserve is doing their bit. Thus, there is no parity between the so-called real economy growth and that of the high growth rate- inflation hike- of Stock markets. Further, we have to add that, with the mass of dollar availability and zero interest, it is flowing out of the US. If, the US Federal Reserve increases the interest rate, conversely dollar would drifted back to the US, and adversely affecting foreign countries, particularly emerging markets, Wall Street and housing bubble.

Everywhere, governments` debt is a revealing problem, which ratchet up rather than contracting. And, governments and consumers are resuscitated by the debt machine. Unemployment is a hallmark of capitalism`s reality, it wreaks havoc to the fabric of societies. For instance, In Spain and Greece; more than 25% of adults and 50% of youth are afflicted with the plight of unemployment. In countries, e.g., US and UK, which touting the reduction of unemployment as a success story, big portion of jobs are made up of low paid, under-employment oand temporary jobs.

Austerity is a far-reaching feature of crisis-stricken capitalism. Austerity policies are placing the cost of capitalism crisis or fictitious capital`s gambling habit on the shoulders of working classes. Whilst, austerity befits the fictitious capital to run speculation frenzy , it savaging public services, rubbing employment, attacking wages, etc. In brief, the structural crisis of capitalism is going to submit  all the more misery to  the world working classes.

Notes

1-See national debt graphs for various countries at the first article: the Structural Crisis of Capitalism(1) at: www.bee-hive.org

2-Is it time to start panicking about China’s debt? If you believe Beijing won’t support the municipalities that have overdosed on credit over the last few years, then absolutely. But overall, China’s federal level debt remains low, bank’s remain strong despite higher non-performing loans on the balance sheet, and yet we still get a total debt to GDP ratio of a whopping 282%. Forbes, May 9 2015.

3-Recently, during an economy discussion at CCTV, China`s English channel TV , the Chinese interviewer revealed that in China students aspire to get a comfortable office job and higher salary, rather than going to work at the manufacturing sector earning much lower wage. By contrast, in Germany, skilled workers are receiving much higher salary than office employees. Thus, interviewer reinforced the secret of the drive to  invention in Germany.

4-The general expropriation from peasants and turning them into workers who now had no means of production except selling their labour power began in China on 1978. This was the time, when the capitalist representatives within the China`s Communist Party, led by Deng Xiaoping, won the ideological battle and china embarked on the trajectory to open capitalist process of production. To secure cheap labour for attracting  the foreign capital, particularly from US and UK, Hukou system amplified the conditions of china's cheap labour, including long hours and low wages.   What was Hukou system? In nutshell, So-called peasant immigrants to cities - new labour force- were barred from being registered and acquiring city residence status. Thereby, These innocent labours were excluded from benefiting of meagre public services, and had to pay for it.

5-China`s capital export to much lower developed counties possessing cheaper labour than china, such as Vietnam, Cambodia, etc, is an indication that china has to some extent lost its position as dominant cheap labour of world workshop- Cambodian labour wage equivalent to 1/5 of china`s worker.

6- The calculation of GDP is a matter of serious dispute. Some economists rightly arguing that it would be misleading to include expenditure on fighting against pollution or developing armaments, spending on military aggression, etc, at the calculation of GDP.

7. In his ̏introduction to a critique of political economy ̋, Marx remarked that: to begin with, the question under discussion is material production. Individuals producing in a society, and hence the socially determined production of individuals , is of course the point of departure...

8- The Wall Street, house of US Stock Market, protestors slogan that we are 99% against 1% manifested the parasitic nature of financial oligarchy.

9- It must be stressed that the world capitalism is no free ,at all, from the conventional wars, and the Imperialist powers and their allies engaged at unholy wars of aggression, killing, maiming, injuring, devastating, making millions fleeing their places of domicile, etc.

10-Mark Carney, the governor of Bank of England walking in step with his US counterpart.

Morad Azimi

 

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Voluntary work Vs compulsory work

Part 1-Compulsory work

Capitalism as a social production relation is based on the production of surplus value/accumulation of capital. However, no matter how much capital or means of production a capitalist might muster(1), in order to throwing the latter into the process of production, capitalist fundamentally needs a combination of physical and mental labour power of the worker to exert on the means of production- being mechanical, semi-mechanical, Electrical and electronic tools, at workshop, factory, office, class room, , lecture room, hospital and so on and so forth. But, who is a worker? She/he a member of working class, and alike classic slave possesses no means of subsistence, except to her/his labour power and in consequence is compelled (2)to sell it to the capitalist, in order to earn means of living or to survive-otherwise will face privation and even starving to death. As a matter of fact she/he is a wage-slave. It is noteworthy to state that, there is a formal discrepancy between a Slave and a wage-slave, because the former is naked and the latter veiled. The sources of slaves were soldiers of defeated armies and also snatching innocent human beings and etc. The slave was being brought to the market, and slave-buyer would examine she/he to see if the slave was robust and healthy. Upon the bargain was concluded, to secure slave not running away, the slave-owner/lord would probably had branded and shackled the salve. Now, the slave had to perform whatever the wishes of the lord were. In short, the slave had been experiencing with her/his blood and flesh the lack of freedom and degraded social position- and compelled to work to the slave-holder .

Genesis of the class of wage-slaves?

Historically, the source of wage-slavery goes back towards the end of 14th century, when the process of expropriation of the ownership of means of production from the peasants was commenced. Then, the process of capitalist production went on to generating the class of wage-slaves. Thus, being robbed off of their ownership of the means of production, these new class of people had no choice other than were compelled to selling their labour power to the capitalists, in order to survive. And similar to the examining procedure for purchasing the slave, capitalist, but, in more detailed manner would go through examining the quality of bargain in the fashion of scrutinising job description or CV of the wage-slave. Hence, wage-slave is basically categorised as the modern slave class, too. For, what is fundamentally defining the social position of a slave and in line with that of the wage-slave, is that, both are deprived from owning the means of production, thereby the fate of slave, or the condition of means of subsistence was laid on the whims of slave-holder/lord and the lot of the wage-salve or her/his means of living at the mercy of the inhumane capitalist, on the other hand. However, there has been a radical difference between the position of antiquity slavery systems of Roman and Greek class societies and the later periods of slavery, on the one hand, and the contemporary capitalism's wage-slavery system, on the other. The former was a permanent contract, in other words, the slave was being sold for ever, and as a result, it was incumbent upon the slaveholder to maintain the slave`s means of living(3). Whilst, the wage-slave, who was expropriated from the means of subsistence is compelled to sell her/his labour power more or less for a certain duration of time, or the contract is temporary one; because the lot of the wage-slave is hinged to the process of capital accumulation, and no sooner than the capital went to the wall of crisis, the capitalist will ruthlessly cast wage-slave onto the heaps of unemployment scrap yard.

Nevertheless, taking at its face value, it would seem quite offensive, if you tell a worker- who is alien to her/his objective social position- that you are but a wage-slave. If wage-slave could manage to control her/his fury, would retort back: what nonsense you talking about, I am a free person and in the command of my own labour power; and I would enter into a free bargain and get employed by a capitalist, or in other words, according to the market price I would sell my commodity, that is, my labour power to the capitalist. However, if a worker or wage-slave thinks so, she/he is suffering from a delusory symptom, i.e. seeing her/his social position inversely, in the same manner as one   would view a picture upside down through a lens. The fate of wage-slave is bound to the process of capitalist production. And the latter is not immune from crisis, whatsoever.

In short, now we see that, the capitalism production of surplus value/capital accumulation is based on the compulsory labour power of the wage-slave.

Inhumane consequences of capitalism`s system of compulsory labour

1-The imposition of long toiling hours. It is apparent that, on the account of each measure of noticeable improvement at the tool making and invention of new techniques or the growth of productive forces, it has been expected that the necessary time required for procuring living needs progressively decreased. Hence, the ongoing growth of productive forces has furnished material basis for sustained reduction of working hours. The dawning of Industrial Revolution between the end of eighteenth century and the first half of 19th century heralded the introduction of a huge advancement at the rate of the growth of productive forces(4), and accordingly, the English textile wage-slaves rightfully raised the banner of 8 hours working day, on 1835. However, English capitalists cruelly oppressed this just demand, as later on American capitalists responded with bullet to the workers` Hay market rally of Chicago for 8 hour day work on the 1st of May 1886.

Today, on the back of two centuries of continued growth of productive forces, it is disgraceful to see the statutory week work, including overtime and excluding extra-statutory week work schedules of much longer hours-(5), in the developed countries ranging from 48 hours to 60 hours. However, in the developing countries the imposition of 100 and ever more hours a week work is no infrequent practice.

2- In tandem with the long working hours, the scourge of chronic unemployment, features another dimension of inhumane mode of capitalism`s wage-slavery system, which aims at making profit rather than satisfying the social needs of every individual members of the world community . So much so that, Marx defined unemployed wage-slaves as a reserved army, which capitalists exploited it as an vicious tool to intensifying competition among the slave-wages, and in consequence driving the level of wages further down, as it is taking place before our eyes just at this point of time. Thus, on the one hand, long working hours and chronic unemployment coexist side by side, and the increased working hours make the unemployment queues longer, on the other. However, the scourge of unemployment and also the spectre of losing job by employed wage-slave is breeding discontent within the class of wage-slaves, and to counter the latter, the Capitalist class is now enjoying the direct and indirect co-operation of the Unions  and political parties trying to cool off wage-slaves` potential to fight back. Further, The capitalist classes are ploying various subterfuge methods, that intended to present a lower rate of unemployment. Finally, what is the solution against the plight of unemployment? The answer is none other than to reduce the working hours. Herewith, we present against the army of sycophant and bootlicker Capitalist economists , the views of some humanist economists, who have recommended moving to a 21 hour standard work week to address problems with unemployment, high carbon emissions, low well-being, entrenched inequalities, overworking, family care, and the general lack of free time(highlight and italic from me)(6).

3- Battling against the monster of Capitalism crisis at the end of 1970, the US and UK Capitalist classes got rid of the state`s intervention in the economy and embraced the free market mechanism, instead. However, the pivotal aspect of the latter U-turn, in fact emerged as to the wholesale onslaught on the achievements of the working classes, that manifested as welfare state. The latter recognised a better environment for the rights of workers to organise, on the one hand, and a relative improvement was made on the conditions of the work and living, on the other.

3-1, The Introduction of draconian anti-union(7) legislations by rabid Thatcherism, that aimed to hampering the united action of working class.

3-2, The wholesale closure of the factories made Millions of workers redundant, as such, plunged them into the poverty, and many a family bonds were broken, desperation, mental problems, addiction, etc, descended on the working class communities.

3-3, A sustain attack waged on the permanent employment contracts and Thatcherism kept replacing the latter with temporary agreements. Cruel capitalist economists, using capitalist mass media, shamelessly telling the wage-slaves that, from now on, there is no such thing as permanent job, and you have to work hard to sell yourself from one temporary job to the another! This savage policy reflected a further ominous consequences to the wage-slaves` working contracts, i.e. by of way of losing their permanent contracts, wages plummeted and the benefits that had been attached to the previous employment contracts were abolished.

3-4, The mushrooming of the private recruitment Agencies. These parasitic agencies, by exploiting the desperation of the individual unemployed wage-slaves, recruited them on the temporary basis and at appalling low wages, on behalf of the capitalists(8); thus deprived they wholly from legal protection, and employers could simply sack them verbally or via the mobile telephone.

3-5, Flexible working hours. The Capitalist would say to the wage-slave, you can work ,say, 40 hours week work for me, but not in terms of continuous timeframe, rather I will assign you the job at different portions. Accordingly: A, the actual time, that the wage slave spent performing the job plus the periods on standby would take up the whole day and night- depending on the nature of the job. Thus, the wage-slave will be deprived from having a meaningful private life(9).B:,This way, the capitalist is forcing a maximum intensity of labour upon the wage-slave, because, time gaps, with pauses or less intensive labour will be slashed away . Here too, employment is a temporary contract and it is void of any attached benefits, such as pension scheme, holiday entitlement and etc.

3-6, Japanese self flexible working hours. This devious practice laid the duration of the performance of the case-work or project on the wage-slave to carry on the job. The poor wage-slave would find that, the length of time was spent was much longer than the work day apportioned by the manager,previously10).

3-7,Shift work. A, a pattern of two twelve hours shift, is bearing much longer hours and as a result it employs less wage-slaves; in other words, it increases the rate of intensity of the labour. Further, it is tiresome and also unsocial work schedule. B, three shift pattern of 8am- 4pm, 4pm-12midnight and 12midnight- 8am, is totally unsocial and carry serious health hazard.

3-8,Work starts too earlier in the morning, compared to conventional work patterns, that starting between 8am to 9.30 am. Duly, this work pattern signifies some degree of unsocial hours (11), and usually poorly paid!

3-9, Part time jobs. Since the early 1980, when capitalism switched to the free market economy, in parallel to the expansion of service sector, the part time work was exponentially increased, and as a result the number of full-time jobs decreased accordingly. For instance, in the course of 1970s, there were about half a million of English female wage-slaves were working at the part time jobs; today, nearly 6 million do. Female wage-slaves make up the major segment of the part-time jobs(12). Part time jobs constitute a few full-day employment a week, and a few days or a week of half day jobs. Generally Part time jobs are being paid poverty wages and also deprived the wage-slave from entitlement to the benefits commensurate with the full-time employment. In addition, both types of the part-time work would usually kill off the chance of getting a second job, unless wage slave seeking to work beyond the conventional day time work pattern. As such, Wage-slave will practically be deprived from having spare time.

3-10, Labour loses its animation. Up till the time of the introduction of Frederick Taylor`s method to intensifying the rate of productivity or intensity of labour, wage-slave worked on assortment of simple, semi, and complex actions. Hence, the toiling was less burdensome. What Taylor did, was that, he divided a complex job into a multiple of simple actions, and then recorded a minimum time required to perform each of these simple actions. As a result, the rate of productivity or intensity of labour was soared, and at the same time the labour turned into a damning pure alienated repetitive function of depressing simple action that ruined the body and soul of the wage-slave(13).

3-11 Team work. Later on, Japan imported the Taylor`s repetitive labour process and elaborated it further and packaged as Team work and exported it back to the western Capitalist countries. whilst, the technique of Team Work pretending has broken down division between the manager and managed, wage-slaves, through engaging the whole workforce in the shop-floor to planning and discussion, in reality the planning decision is remained in the domain of management and further, it employed as a cunning way of exploiting wage-slaves` intelligence and initiative ideas, that aimed at augmenting the rate of productivity or rate of exploitation.

3-12, Lean production and lean labour force. This Japanese programming of the production process attempted to produce in correspondence to the market demand and practically endeavouring to eliminate the role of conventional warehouse. Thus, in parallel with the latter, management employing a minimum number of wage-slaves and slashing any possible slacking gaps that existed within the process of production.  

3-13, Child labour. Thanks to the blessing of the god of capitalism and on the basis of the capitalism`s world division of labour, the inhumane phenomenon of child labour still survives abundantly, though mainly in the developing capitalist countries. However, child labour is not totally foreign to the developed capitalist countries. It is scandalous to see that, due to the capitalist farmers` lobbying influence, still child labour is not statutory illegal, and as a result children as young as 7 years old are working on the farming industry of American Imperialism(14).

3-14, Zero-hour employment. In the wake of the capitalism structural crisis, the latter is the recent novel way of employing wage-slave. Accordingly, capitalist accords no formal employment contract with the wage-slave. She/he calls to work only when employer wanted. Therefore, there is no regular work pattern. It is extremely intensified labour regime, and it pays poverty wages(15), and the capitalist would sack the wage-slave any time they wanted.

3-15, Call centres. Here, we are not dwelling at the subject of call centres in relation to the developing countries, such as India, rather we are referring to England, historically the first capitalist country and now a developed one. There is a now nearly million wage-slaves working in the call centres. Call centres are very regimented work places. It`s rows of desks with female wage-slaves sitting with headphones. They are encouraged not to talk, share experience, and so on. The minute you get in the door, your movements are regulated by the computer. Here, the alienation in the workplace taken to extreme. In some call centres, a worker in Bristol or Glasgow who wanted to leave fifteen minutes early has to go through head office in Sheffield to be cleared. Wage-slaves have to put their hands up to go to the toilet, etc(16).

3-16, Finally, the condition of work and level of wage in other service sector, including catering, hotels, restaurants and etc bears the hallmark of temporary jobs.  

 

Part 2-Voluntary work in the post-capitalist society

Taking our cue from Marx`s Critique of Capital/ political Economy, we discussed that, capitalism is based on the production of surplus value/accumulation of capital, which produced by the class of wage-slaves. Further, the latter essentially required compulsory labour of the wage-slave. We, also described how  inhumane conditions of labouring is forced upon wage-slave by the capitalism compulsory regime of work. In consequence , the very nature of the process of appropriating surplus value/accumulation of capital produced by the wage-slave is fundamentally dictated by compulsory labouring. Needless to say, that to get rid of compulsory labour and substitute it with a voluntary work is basically necessitated to fighting against the root cause, i.e., the capitalism process of production that aimed at making surplus value/profit to be replaced by the process of production aimed at satisfying the universal needs of each member of society, and as a result realising the material condition for voluntary work.

Characteristic features of Voluntary work

1-The first question immediately pops into ones head as to administering voluntary work, is that, if the growth of productive forces have brought about such degree of advance in the productive forces, that makes voluntary work from the world of ideal or utopia on the skies down into a reality on the earth? The answer is affirmative(17).

2- As a living organism, the human body does essentially need activity, both mental and physical for keeping it vital and animated. As such, work, too, whether physical or mental or both signifies an activity similar to an individual practicing one or more from variety of sports, playing football, dancing, playing music, studying, going on rambling, singing, mountaineering, swimming, so on and so forth. As such, both work and hobby as activity demanded to exert certain amount of physical and mental efforts. Nonetheless, the first is an alienated and compulsory activity, that you perform against your will and desire, because, at the end, the pleasure, i.e., the fruit of the product of your labouring or activity in the form of surplus value would desert you and appropriated by the capitalist. You were obliged to work, otherwise defying the will of capital you are doomed with privation and even facing starvation.

3- Historically work as an action for the production of means of subsistence to survive and reproduction as means of sustaining human race had been built into the human DNA(18). However, the very operation of capitalism thanks to making many Wage-slaves unemployed, not only denying them the opportunity to work, but further an unemployed is losing the social stature pertaining to an employed, in other words, the unemployed is getting socially excluded, and many of them suffering from depression, the blight of unemployment, and subjected to stigma. No wonder, why, on the one hand, the employed wage-slave is kept worried at the nightmare of becoming unemployed tomorrow, and the unemployed is earnestly yearning to get employed, even where she/he can afford to work gratis.  

4- we are living in the Capitalist Society, which dominated by the compulsory toiling, so, to speak of voluntary work would sounds quite bizarre to the wage-salves, in the first place. Because, they live in a society, which is fundamentally based on stealing their surplus value by the capitalist class; thus defrauding, lying, dodging, conning, cheating, etc, making the order of the day (19), so, apparently they will dodge from working voluntarily. Don't they ? The answer is, they will not. Because, when a society is aimed at producing to meet the social needs of every individuals of the society, and not the fruit of social production grabbed by a tiny minority, such a society invariably will develop its own corresponding social obligations, culture, principles, moral, ethics and norms. Therefore, they will see to caring for herself/himself, is to caring for the wellbeing of the society, or in other words, they will absorb with their body and soul, the sage motto: the blooming of one is conditioned to the blooming of all, and vis-a-vis.

However, to envisage voluntary work as an alternative to the inhumane compulsory regimeofwork, is not a totally theoretical and subjective matter. For, on two accounts. Firstly, where voluntary work benefits Capitalism, it is more than happy to encourage many more good hearted people to engage in the socially voluntary activities, in one way or the other. Secondly, disregarding numerous voluntary activities that are carried on by individuals or group of people- relatively at small scales- there are many organisations without the state, which are engaged in the voluntary -non profit- activities(20). Thus, as a concrete category, voluntary work does have objective germs within the cruel and greedy breeding capitalist society.

Realization of voluntary work

It was detailed in the part one of our discourse, that capitalism is based on the expropriation of the surplus value that produced by the class of wage-slaves. As such, it inevitably impose class of wage-slaves into compulsory toiling with inhumane consequences. Though, being compelled to work against your will and desire make the work boring, dull and dreary, and according to statistics almost one third of wage-slaves are suffering from depression. Still, far worse, the compulsory work is synonymous with stealing wage-slave`s surplus value, forced long hours, labour intensity, flexible hours- a different code for labour intensity- unsocial work, part-time work and generally poorly paid wage/salary for both the full time and part-time work; the plight of getting unemployed and the existence of an army of unemployed, who are socially excluded and subject to humiliation and discrimination, child labour and etc.

The Post-capitalist society, as the alternative to the capitalist process of production , will lay down a foundation for the process of social production aimed at meeting the social needs of the universal members of the associated societies. In parallel with the latter, post-capitalist society will establish its own alternative work ethics, moral and norms, representing its characteristic features, as follows:

1- work will be declared as a voluntary social contribution. Thus, Every member of society, who bearing of a minimum of 18 years of age and are available to work, will, on volition basis , contribute her/his share of voluntary work for the goodness of the society. The latter is meant that, if any member of society did not feel inclination to contribute her/his labour share of contribution to society, will do so, without any sense of squirm.

2- Voluntary work will once again to resurrect and restore the intrinsic nature of the work as a creative and enjoyable action, which capitalism has been ignominiously robbed it off from the face of the production process. Hence, nobody will dodge from engaging in an activity, that akin to playing this or that sport or hobby.

3- On the basis of the aforesaid principle, the blooming of one will be the basis for the blooming of all, in other words, the prosperity of an individual is guaranteed for the opulence of the society and conversely.

4- When we organise a social activity in personal capacity or as a group, we need a plan of action or a programme simple or elaborated for the sake of fulfilling it properly, as a result, to overcoming chaos and anarchy. The same is fitting for the voluntary work/activity. Thus, the post-capitalist society will set, on the voluntary basis, a maximum of 5 hours working day and 25 hours working week (21).

Finally, capitalism based on compulsory toiling is on the whole characterised as to wage-slaves living to work, and post-capitalist society based on voluntary work or practice is characterised as to working to live, by contrast.

Morad Azimi

13/11/2013

Notes

1- Capital in the form of assets or paper money reflects the value of the dead labour of the previous capitalist production of sur-value/accumulation of capital. for more information see: wage-slave, from Morad Azimi, at www.bee-hive.org

2- The brutal capitalist expression of hire and fire is objectively expressing the very inhumane nature of capitalism.

3- For more information see    ̏ Wage-slavery ̋ from Morad Azimi, at www.be-hive.org

4- According to Marx, between the end of eighteenth and the first half of nineteenth century the productive forces multiplied by 23 times. Grundrisse( the Economic manuscripts of 1957-8)

5-Recently, Japanese world channel TV, NHK, broadcast that in the service industry some wage-slaves leaving home at 5.30 am and coming back home at 10.30 pm, working over 100 hours a week. As a result, there were suicide cases, thanks to the intolerable and back breaking long hours of toiling.

6-Wikipedia

7- it must be said that, without the consent of Labour party, in particular, and the compromise of the Trade Union Bureaucracy, Thatcherism was not able to crush Britain`s working class.  

8- One piece of hideous attack committed by the criminal Thatcher against working class achievements was the abolishing of the shop-closed clause. According to the latter workers` right, at the time of employment, the applicant was treated as becoming a member of the relevant factory`s union and enjoyed the benefits of the shop-closed clause.

9- Liverpool Dockers launched a heroic strike against this inhumane pattern of work for two and half yours, started on 1995. One of the organiser of the strike related that, how the strike was triggered. I dressed up my decent clothes and just going to take my daughter to her wedding ceremony, all the sudden telephone rang and I was called to work. My temper frayed. I had put up with it until then, I said enough is enough...

10- NHK TV

11- Cleaners are particularly fall within this category. They have to start work quite early in the morning, before business is opened. Though, it is an unsocial job and should be rewarded a decent pay, yet they are among the lowest paid wage-salves.

12- Statistics for part-time job in UK on August- Oct 2012:

           Male                                       Female

   2.121 million                               # 6. million

13- See Charlie Chaplin`s Masterpiece picture: The Golden Age                                       

14- Reported on the Aljazeera English TV, on 03/11/13

15- The gigantic Amazon`s European on-line sale centre is located in UK. The length of warehouse is a few kilometres long, each worker is carrying a heavy electronic gadget in the hand, which not only guiding wage-slave`s way towards a particular point, but, at the same time, recording the pace of action. Wage-slaves walk 11 miles, each shift, i.e. getting each order ready takes about 33 seconds. According to Michael Marmot, a work stress expert, the work condition at Amazon Warehouse contains the all elements of stress and depression diseases. If a wage-slave was found not enough agile, she/he will be dismissed forthwith. Even Going to toilet is strictly checked. Further, Zero hour employment does not mean, there is a regular daily work, on the contrary, wage-slave will be called in when Amazon needed the wage-slave to toil. When the reporter interviewed a wage-slave, he complained that work is very hard and just following a day work he lost some weight. A large Amazon warehouse was built in the former mining locality with high rate of unemployment, and wages are woefully low. According to the official statistics, at least one million wage-slaves are tormenting at Zero hour employment sector. Channel 4 TV, UK.

16- The demonization of the working class, Owen Jones, P147

17-,See ,the growth of the productive forces, from Morad Azimi, www.bee-hive.org

18- Marx discovered that, before the human being engaged in philosophy, politics, literature, poetry, art, religion, claiming as a prophet, so on and so forth, they are primarily characterised as social beings had to enter into two historical actions, that is, A: to produce to live, B: reproduce to survive human race. However, for 5000 years, since the emergence of the class division , this immortal discovery had been buried under the ideas of ruling classes, including the religion superstitions.

19-Marx famously stated: the dominant culture, belief etc, of each society is a reflection of the culture, belief, etc of its ruling class.

20- Just for the sake of our discourse, it would be suffice to refer to two voluntary computer programming projects, namely Linux and Joomla, which brought together several thousands of voluntary peoples with programming knowledge from different countries, who provide their service to service users free of charge.

21- I have excused myself to treat with such issue as shift work, which is a technical matter, and is left its practicality to the post-capitalist soc

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